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The gaelic origins of place names in britain

By OS Team

Published on 75 min read

If you have ever wondered how many of the places in Scotland got their names, this extensive list of terms, along with pronunciation, is here to help.

See also ScandanavianScots and Welsh

Background to Scottish Gaelic

Scottish Gaelic today is strongly associated with the Scottish Highlands, especially the Western Isles, and it is easy to forget that it was once the main language of Scotland. About a thousand years ago, when Gaelic was at its height, it could be heard from Berwickshire to Caithness and from Cape Wrath to the Rhinns of Galloway. It has left its mark above all else, in place names, even in areas including much of lowland Scotland, where it has been little spoken since the middle ages. It has left us with thousands of familiar place names containing scores of Gaelic elements, such as Auch‑ from achadh, Auchter‑ from uachdar, Bal‑ from baile, Dun‑ from dùn, Inver‑ from inbhir, Kin‑ from ceann, and Kil‑ usually from cill or coille.

On the Ordnance Survey maps of Scotland you will find two types of names: those written using English spelling and those using Gaelic spelling (orthography). This does not reflect the extent of place names derived from Gaelic, which are to be found throughout most of Scotland, but rather it reflects the areas in which Gaelic was, or had recently been, spoken at the time of the creation of the Ordnance Survey maps in the 19th century. The accompanying glossary is concerned only with those names written in Gaelic orthography. The initial form given in the glossary is the main form of that word in the Gaelic‑Gaelic dictionary Brìgh nam Facal by Richard A V Cox (Gairm Publications, Glasgow 1991).

Structure of place name

Place names are made up of elements, words taken mostly from everyday language used to describe a special feature of a place. Place names arise from the interaction of language and environment.

Place names can consist of a single generic element, usually a noun (Comar NH3331, Corran NS2193). These are often preceded by the Scottish Standard English definite article ’the’, Gaelic an, am, a’, plural na (An Dùnan NM8629, Am Fasgadh NN0169, A’ Charraig NR8467, Na Croitean NM3721). Most place names, however, are made up of more than one element, with a linguistic relationship between the elements. For example, the generic can be qualified by:

  • An adjective, such as mòr ’big’ in Beinn Mhòr NH9928 or dearg ’red’ in Eas Dearg NN6109. Sometimes more than one adjective can qualify the generic element, as in Eilean Glas Mòr NF9069. Such names are also often preceded by the definite article, as in An Ùidh Dhubh NH7395. Note that the definite article is more common in such place names than would appear from Ordnance Survey maps, which frequently do not record it as part of the name.
  • Another common noun in the genitive case, such as sgadan ’herring’ in Geodha Sgadain NG1087, often with the definite article, such as Gleann a’ Chapaill NR7367 (’glen of the horse’), or Loch na h‑Oidhche NG8865 (’loch of the night’).
  • A proper noun, either a personal name, such as Fearchar (Farquhar) in Allt Fhearchair NM5326 or Mairead (Margaret) in Clach Mairead NB1841; OR an existing place name, such as Ìle (Islay) in Caol Ìle or Àirigh nan Eun in Allt Àirigh nan Eun NR8666. Many personal names are those of saints, such as Cill(e) Brìde NR8362, NR3846 (’church of (St) Brigit’ (Kilbride)).

The element qualifying a generic element is called a qualifying or specific element. An element can be generic or specific, depending on how it is used in a name. For example, in Eilean Dubh NC2409 eilean is the generic, dubh is the specific element; whereas in Loch an Eilein NR7980 loch is the generic, an t‑eilean (’the island’) is the specific element.

In Gaelic an adjective usually follows its noun, as in French, for example, Creag Bhàn, Beinn Fhada, except for sean(n) (’old’), which regularly comes before its noun. Other adjectives, especially colour adjectives, can sometimes come after, sometimes before their noun, for example, Coire Glas NO2587 but Glas‑Choire NS1598.

Gaelic spelling and pronunciation

Gaelic spelling is more regular than English spelling, which means that it reflects more accurately the actual sounds of the language. It should be stressed, however, that the sound system of Gaelic is different from Standard English (Received Pronunciation), Scottish Standard English, Scots, or any of the Scottish or English dialects, except for the so‑called West Highland accent, which has been heavily influenced by Gaelic. There are, however, more similarities with Scottish Standard English than with Standard English (Received Pronunciation), so most of the examples below are taken from Scottish Standard English. Modern Gaelic spelling recommendations are embodied in the Gaelic Orthographic Conventions that are available online at sqa.org.uk.

Gaelic uses an alphabet of 18 letters, namely a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, l, m, n, o, p, r, s, t, u. A major feature of the Gaelic spelling system is the concept of broad and slender vowels, which are also referred to as back and front vowels. The broad or back vowels are a, o, u, the slender or front vowels are e, i. The pronunciation of most consonants is different depending on whether they are beside a broad vowel or a slender vowel. For this reason a consonant or group of consonants in the middle of a word must have either a broad vowel on either side or a slender vowel on either side.

All vowels can be long or short, with length being indicated by a grave accent ( ’ ). Formerly acute accents ( ´ ) were used on e and o to indicate not only length (quantity) but also quality, with è pronounced like a long French è (as in Scottish English cortege), and é pronounced like a long French é (as in Scottish English bay); while ò was pronounced like Scottish English awe, and ó like Scottish English owe. However, the acute accent ( ´ ) has been abandoned in modern spelling recommendations so that the grave accent ( ’ ) now indicates length only.

These modern spelling recommendations also explain why forms formerly written with u in unstressed syllables such as calltuinn, camus, tarsuinn, are now written with a, calltainn, camas, tarsainn.

What follows is only a rough approximation of sounds. Remember that the English words given as equivalents are to be pronounced more like Scottish Standard English than Standard English (received pronunciation), unless otherwise stated.


Single vowels

  • a: like a in ’hat’, often like u in ’but’; before nn it is like ow in ’cow’
  • à: like a in ’half’
  • e: short closed e like a in ’rate’ and short open e like e in ’fetch’
  • è: long closed e like ay in ’bay’ (formerly é) and long open e like e in ’cortege’ (formerly è)
  • i: like ee as in ’keep’
  • ì: like ee in ’keep’ but longer
  • o: short closed o like oa in ’boat’, and short open o like o in ’lot’
  • ò: long closed o like ’owe’ (formerly ó), and long open o like ’awe’ (formerly ò)
  • u: like oo in ’book’
  • ù: like oo in ’book’, but longer

Vowel groups

Most groups of two or three vowels are pronounced much as would be expected, that is as separate sounds rapidly following one another. However, often one of the vowels is there simply to indicate whether a consonant is broad or slender, for example, in fearann the a following the e indicates that the r is broad, so that ea is pronounced simply as e (as in ’get’). However, note the following:

  • ao: a long sound with no equivalent in English. Try saying Gaelic ù (like oo in ’book’, but longer) without rounding your lips.
  • eu: like ia in ’Maria’ or like ay in ’bay’.


This is not a complete or exact description of how each consonant or group of consonants are pronounced. However, those that are most unfamiliar to someone used to the English spelling system are given below, with their approximate English value:

  • bh: like v at the beginning of words, otherwise like w, or silent (that is not heard at all); for example dubh is pronounced approximately as ’doo’.
  • c: like c in ’cat’ or c in ’cue’; when it occurs between two vowels or as the last letter of a word it is preceded by the sound ch in ’loch’
  • ch: like ch in ’loch’.
  • cn: like cr.
  • d slender (that is in contact with one of the slender vowels e, i): like j in ’jam’.
  • dh broad (that is in contact with one of the broad vowels a, o, u): the same sound as Gaelic broad gh, almost like French r in ’rire’. When it is not at the beginning of a word it is often pronounced only very lightly or not at all.
  • dh slender (that is in contact with one of the slender vowels e, i): the same sound as Gaelic slender gh, like y in ’yet’. When it is not at the beginning of a word it is often pronounced only very lightly or not at all.
  • fh: silent, that is not pronounced at all.
  • gh broad (that is in contact with one of the broad vowels a, o, u): the same sound as Gaelic broad dh, almost like French r in ’rire’. When it is not at the beginning of a word it is often pronounced only very lightly or not at all.
  • gh slender (that is in contact with one of the slender vowels e, i): the same sound as Gaelic slender dh, like y in ’yet’. When it is not at the beginning of a word it is often pronounced only very lightly or not at all.
  • l broad (that is in contact with one of the broad vowels a, o, u): like a hollow or dark l, as in ’full’, with the blade (as opposed to the tip) of the tongue touching the teeth.
  • l slender (that is in contact with one of the slender vowels e, i): like lli in ’million’ when it is at the beginning of a word; otherwise like ll in ’silly’.
  • mh: like v at the beginning of words, otherwise like w, or silent (that is not heard at all). It also makes the vowel before it sound very nasal.
  • ph: like f.
  • r slender (that is in contact with one of the slender vowels e, i): can be pronounced like r in Scottish English ’tree’, but in several dialects it is pronounced like th in ’the’.
  • rd and rt: in many Gaelic dialects this is pronounced with a light sh as in ’she’ between the two consonants.
  • s slender (that is in contact with one of the slender vowels e, i): like sh in ’she’.
  • t slender (that is in contact with one of the slender vowels e, i): like ch in ’church’.
  • th: like h in ’he’ at the beginning of words, otherwise silent.

Some grammar

The following is not a full description of Gaelic grammar. However, in order to use the Elements Index it is important to know a little about these things. A full description can be found in any book for Gaelic learners, sources for which are given in the further information section.

Certain regular changes take place in Gaelic in nouns, adjectives and the definite article, depending on such grammatical features as gender (masculine or feminine), number (singular or plural), and case (nominative, genitive, dative). All Gaelic nouns are either masculine or feminine, and it will become clear that it is important to know what gender a noun belongs to. Some nouns, however, are used in masculine and feminine forms depending on local usage. They are marked nmf in the glossary. The genitive case indicates possession, as indicated in English by ’of the’.

Definite article

‘The’ is the only form of the definite article in English. However, as with most other European languages, Gaelic has several forms, depending on number, gender and case, as well as on the initial letter or letters of the following noun.


  • a’: for example, before a feminine noun in the nominative case beginning with b(h), c(h), g(h), m(h), p(h), as in A’ Bheinn NM8403, A’ Chruach NM9021, A’ Phàirc Loisgte NN4856; or before a masculine noun in the genitive case beginning with b(h), c(h), g(h), m(h), p(h), as in Sròn a’ Bhàird NR7662, ’nose of the poet’, containing the genitive of am bàrd ’the poet’, Allt a’ Choire Dhuibh NN2564, ’burn of the black corrie’, containing the genitive of an coire dubh ’the black corrie’. This form of the definite article always causes lenition (see below).
  • am: before a masculine noun in the nominative case beginning with b, f, m, p, as in Am Fasgadh NN0169, Am Meall NR7665.
  • an: for example, before a masculine noun in the nominative case beginning with any consonant except b, f, m, p, as in An Cnap NS0146, or before a feminine noun in the nominative case beginning with a vowel or f(h), as in An Àird NG5335, An Fhang NR6552.
  • an t‑: for example, before a masculine noun in the nominative beginning with a vowel, as in An t‑Inbhir NN4048; before a masculine noun in the genitive beginning with s + vowel, l, n, or r, as in Cnoc an t‑Sagairt NR8368, ’hill of the priest’, containing the genitive of an sagart ’the priest’, Meall an t‑Sluic NN5152, containing the genitive of an sloc ’the hollow’; or before a feminine noun in the nominative beginning with s + vowel, l, n, or r, as in An t‑Sàil Bheag NG8761, An t‑Sròn NL9342. Note that in all cases following an t‑ the initial s is silent, that is it is not pronounced.
  • na: before a feminine noun in the genitive beginning with a consonant, as in Loch na Bèiste NR7654, Port na Cille NR6444.
  • na h‑: before a feminine noun in the genitive beginning with a vowel, as in Gob na h‑Àirde Mòire NB0117, containing the genitive of An Àird Mhòr ’the big headland’.

The forms of the definite article with singular nouns can be summarised in this table:

SingularInitial letter of following noun
b, m, pc, gd, l, n, r, tfsvowel
masculinenomamananamanan t‑
gena’a’ananan t‑an
gennanananat‑ nana h‑


  • na: before masculine and feminine nouns in the nominative beginning with a consonant, as in Na Cnuic Liatha NC1810, plural of an cnoc liath ’the grey hill’ (cnoc is masculine), Na Croitean NM3721, plural of a’ chroit ’the croft’ (croit is feminine).
  • na h‑: before masculine and feminine nouns in the nominative beginning with a vowel, as in Na h‑Easan NC4300, plural of an t‑eas ’the waterfall’ (eas is masculine) or Na h‑Ìnnsean NC2522, plural of an innis (innis is feminine).
  • nam: before masculine and feminine nouns in the genitive beginning with b, f, m, p, as in Toll nam Broc NR8082, Creag nam Fitheach NR7876.
  • nan: before masculine and feminine nouns in the genitive beginning with any letter except b, f, m, p, as in Druim nan Toll NN7094.

The forms of the definite article with plural nouns can be summarised in this table:

PluralInitial letter of following noun
b, f, m, pother consonantsvowel
Masculine or femininenomnanana
gennamnanh‑ nan


Gaelic is a Celtic language and, as in other Celtic languages such as Irish and Welsh, the consonants at the beginning of words can change according to gender, number and case. In Gaelic this is called lenition, meaning literally ’softening’, and it is usually signalled by putting the letter h after the lenited or softened consonant.

The initial consonants that are affected by lenition by the addition of an h are b, c, d, f, g, m, p, s, t. The consonants l, n, r can also be affected by lenition, but this is not expressed in the spelling.

These are some of the main circumstances in which lenition occurs:

  • in a feminine singular noun following the definite article, as in A’ Bheinn NM8403, An Fhang NR6552;
  • in an adjective following a feminine singular noun, as in Creag Bhreac NM8400 or Beinn Mhòr NH9928;
  • in the genitive of a masculine singular noun following the definite article a’, as in Eilean a’ Bhuic NB5452 (genitive of boc);
  • in the adjective qualifying a masculine genitive singular noun, as in Rubha a’ Phuirt Mhòir NR2457 (genitive of port mòr);
  • in the genitive singular of masculine personal names, as in Geodha Chaluim MhicMhuirich NA0701 (’the ravine of Calum MacVurich or Malcolm Currie’) or Sgùrr Thormaid NG4422 (’Tormad’s or Norman’s peak’); and
  • in a noun following an adjective, regardless of the noun’s gender, as in Glas‑Choire NS1598.


Place names are made up of components which are referred to as elements. These elements are simply the words people used to describe a place or their response to their environment. A more complete background to Scottish Gaelic in place names, pronunciation and spelling can be found preceding Introduction.

This is a glossary of the elements from Scottish Gaelic most frequently found in the place names of Britain. The meaning given is that which occurs in place names. Examples (with grid references) are given for each element. The forms of names given in these examples are as they currently appear on Ordnance Survey maps, which in some cases do not conform to current Gaelic conventions.

There are usually three forms given for each noun: the first form is the basic form, called the nominative singular; the second form is the genitive singular; while the third form is the plural.

adj = adjective
adv = adverb
f = feminine
g = genitive
m = masculine
nf = noun feminine
nm = noun masculine
nmf = noun sometimes used in masculine and in feminine
num = number
pl = plural
pr = preposition
a’form of definite article ’the’
abhainn nf aibhne g aibhnichean plriverAbhainn a’ Bhàigh NB2502, Abhainn Bheag NC8446
acairseidalternative form of acarsaidAcairseid an Rubha NG5600
acarsaid nf acarsaide g acarsaidean planchorage, harbourAcarsaid an Dùin NM0847, AcarsaidNM5872
achshortened form of achadhAch nan Con NN1370, Ach a’ Chorrain NC3761
achadh nm achaidh g achaidhean plfield, agricultural holdingDromaAchadh nan Each NM5245, Achadh an NM4349
achlais nf achlaise g achlaisean plarmpit, oxterAllt na h‑Achlaise NH2982, An Achlais NH2982
agh nm aighe g aighean plyoung cow, heiferBad nan Aighean NC1325, Breac nan Aighean NM0448
aibhne, aibhnicheansee abhainnPort Bun Aibhne NR2068
aifrean nmf aifrinn(e) gchurch‑landAllt an Aifrinn NH4845, Port na h‑Aifrinne NM6980
aighe, aigheansee aghRubha nan Aighean NM6962
àilsee àlLoch an Àil NF7101
àileach adjairy, windy, breezySròn Àileach NN6715
àilean nm àilein g àilein plgreen, enclosure, meadowCàrn an Àilean NH8221, Boch‑àilean ND1020
airbhe nfdividing wall, fenceSgeirean nan Airbhe NC1548, Allt na h‑Airbhe NH2361
àird nf àirde g àirdean plheight, promontoryCruach Àirde NR7363, Rubha na h‑Àirde Bige NC2049
àirigh nf àirighe g àirighean, àirichean plshielingSean‑Àirigh NC9458, Àirigh a’ Bhealaich NB5358
aiseag nm aiseig g aiseagan plferryEilean an Aiseig NF8646, Gob an Aiseig NB2616
aisir nf aisre g aisrean plpassage, pass, pathLoch Aisir NC1960, Aisir a’ Chaorainn NN1843
aisridh nfhill, pathAisridh Màiri Bhàn NN1868, Allt Aisridh NG5721
aiteann nm aitinn gjuniperAllt an Aitinn NO2082, Caochan Aitinn NJ1310
àl nm àil grock, stoneLoch an Àil NF7101
allt nm uillt g uillt plburn, streamAllt a’ Bhacain NJ0330, Bad an Uillt ND2044
alltan nm alltain g alltain plsmall burn, rivuletCoire Chrion‑alltain NN8495, Alltain Ruadh NG9865
amform of definite article ’the’
amar nm amair g amaran, amraichean pltrough, channel, ditchAllt an Amair NJ1343, Beinn an Amair NC3565
amhach nf amhaiche g amhaichean plneckLoch nan Amhaichean NH4176
a‑muigh advouterHèisgeir A‑Muigh NL5786
an, an t‑forms of definite article ’the’
annaid nf annaid(e) gearly or mother‑church, land belonging to such a churchTòrr na h‑Annaid NM3621
aodann nm aodainn g aodainnean plfaceAodann Mhòr NC4069, Aodann Raineach NN0502
aoidh nf aoidhe g aoidhean plneck of land, slow moving waterEilean Aoidhe NR9367, Caisteal Aoidhe NR9071
aoineadh nm aoinidh gsteep brae with rocks, morraineFionn Aoineadh NM4026, Aoineadh Beag NM6550
aon, aona numone, on its own, sameRubha na h‑Aona Cloich NA9726
aonach nm aonaich g aonaichean plsteep height, plateau, hillAn Dubh‑aonach NM6474, Aonach Bàn NN7454
arbhar nm arbhair gcornCamas an Arbhair NG7381, Cnoc anArbhair ND0556
àrd nmf àird g àrdan plnon‑standard form of àirdDruim an Àird NC7764, Àrd Caol NB2301
àrd adjhighSròn Àrd NB1112, Tom Àrd NB2630
arianglicised form of àirighArinagour NM2257, Arinabea NN2931
a‑staigh advinnerHèisgeir A‑Staigh NL5886
àth nm àtha g àthan plfordEilean an Àtha NM7407, Loch an Àth Ruaidh NB0518
athair nm athar g athraichean plfatherCaolas Mhic an Athar NR3686
auch, auchenanglicised forms of achadhAuchencloy NX0754, Aucheninch NS2514
auchteranglicised form of uachdarAuchterarder NN9412, Auchtertyre NJ1858
aultanglicised form of alltAult na Skiah NH6742, Aultbeg NJ2733
see bòLochan na Bà Glaise NM7188, Rubha na Bà NC2048
bac nm baca, baic g bacan plpit, hollow, bog, peat bankAm Bac Dubh NH2351, Bràigh Bac NN3088
bacach adjhilly, ruggedCnoc Bacach NC4551, Loch Bacach NC4551
bachall nm bachaill g bachallan plcrozier, staff (of a cleric)Coire a’ Bhachaill NN0630
bad nm baid g badan pltuft, grove, thicketBad an Òir NN5186, Càrn Bad an Daimh NH7628
bàgh nm bàigh g bàghan, bàghannan plbayBàgh a Tuath NB5532, Bàgh a’ Ghlinne NG1898
baicsee bacAllt Bhaic NN8464
baidsee badAllt a’ Bhaid Leathain NC6320
bàighsee bàghTràigh Bad na Bàighe NC2247
baile nm bailtean plfarm, hamlet, homesteadBaile na Cille NC0834, Baile Geamhraidh NM6255
bàirdsee bàrdLoch a’ Bhàird NB3001
balanglicised form of baileBalbeg ND1553, Balcairn NJ7828
ballaanglicised form of baileBallabeg NJ4103, Ballachulish NN0757
ballyanglicised form of baileBallycoach NS3611, Ballygowan NR8197
bàn adjfair, white, pale, light in colourEas Bàn NH0977, Eilean Bàn NF8046
baneanglicised form of bànCraigbane NX6797, Tombane NN9552
bànrigh nf bànrighe g bànrighean plqueenSròn na Bàn‑righ NN8788, Clach na Bàn‑righ NM1858
bàrd nm bàird g bàird plbard, poet, dyke, fence, parkEilean a’ Bhàird NG2704, Loch a’ Bhàird NB3001
barpa nm barpannan pl(chambered) cairn, heap of stonesBarpa Langass NF8365, Dùn Bharpa NF6701
bàrr nm barra g barran pltop, summit, height, hillAm Bàrr NM9728, Allt Bàrr Mhìn NN2532
bàta nm bàtaichean plboat, bargeSloc a’ Bhàta NF7100, Camas a’ Bhàta NG7371
bàthaich (also in f form bàthach, bàthcha) nm bàthaich g bàthaichean plbyre, cow shedBàthaich Fionndag NH9907, Mòine na Bàthaich NB4055
beag adj bhig (f), bige (m) g beaga pllittleMonadh Beag NN1585, Poll Beag NH8437
bealach nm bealaich g bealaich plpass, gorge of a mountain, glen, gapAm Bealach NC8959, Bealach a’ Chait NM9283
bealaidh nmbroom (plant)Càrn a’ Bhealaidh NO3293, Creag a’ Bhealaidh NH3439
bean nf mnà, mnatha g mnathan plwife, womanDruim na Mnà NB2332, Bean an Taighe NM6375
beanntansee beinn
beàrn nf bèirn, beàirn g beàrnan plgap, creviceTobar Bun na Bèirn NR1653
beathrach, beathraicheansee beithirBeinn nam Beathrach NM7557
beganglicised form of beagCarnbegNR4167, Corranbeg NM8004
beinn nf beinne g beanntan plmountain, peakBeinn a’ Tuath NB0923, Beinn a’ Ghrianain NC2835
bèirnsee beàrnTobar Bun na Bèirn NR1653
bèist nf bèiste g bèistean plbeast, monsterCnoc na Bèiste NC5065, Clach na Bèiste NR9061
beithe nf beithe gbirchCamas Beithe NG8388, Cnoc Beithe NN8626
beithir nm beathrach g beathraichean, beithrichean plserpent, wild beastSròn a’ Bheathrach NR8266, Cleite na Beathrach NB3013
benanglicised form of beinnBen TirranNO3674, Ben Stack NC2742
beul nm beòil g beòil plmouth, openingBeul a’ Mhàim NN0674, Beul an Lochain NC9963
beum nm beuma g beuman, beumannan plstream, torrent, gap
bh‑A word starting bh is often a lenited form of a word starting b
bhigsee beagLùb Gairt Bhig NN3044
bho dheas adjsouthernDail bho Dheas NB4861
bho thuath adjnorthernDail bho Thuath NB4961
biast nf bèiste g biastan plalternative form of bèistToll nam BiastNG8761, Biastan Thuilm NB4430
bidean nm bidein g bideanan plpinnacle, sharp, pointed hillAm Bidean NG3441, Bidean Dubh NG9520
bigesee beagLoch Cul Làimhe Bige NB1722
bile nf bilean pllip, edge, marginBeinn na Bile NF9571, Bile Buidhe NJ0711
binnean nm binnein g binnein plhigh conical hillAn Binnean Crom NR3790, Binnein NN3409
biolar nf biolair gwatercressBiolaire NB4641, Fuaran nam Biolaire NN5139
biorach adjsharp‑pointedRubha Biorach NM7368, Meall Biorach NN0237
bioran nm biorain g biorain plstickLeac nam Bioran NM9472, Bioran Beag NN6922
blairanglicised form of blàrDrumblair NX2850, Dalblair NS6419
blàr nm blàir g blàran plcleared spaceBlàr an Lochain NN2088
bò nm bà g bà pl (bò g plcowLochan na Bà Glaise NM7188, Rubha na Bà NC2048
boc nm buic g buic plbuck, he‑goatSgeir nam Boc NC0615, Allt a’ Bhuic ND0535
bodach nm bodaich g bodaich plold man, spectreSloc nam Bodach NR4298, Allt nam Bodach NL6490
bodha nm bodhachan plsunken rock in sea, rock over which waves breakBodha Ruadh NG4475
bogach nm bogaich g bogaichean plmarsh, bogBogach NF7102, Bogach nan Sgadan NF8068
bogha nm boghachan plalternative form of bodhaBogha Beag NG7326, Bogha Crom NM4434
boglach nf boglaich g boglaichean plmarsh, bogBoglach nan Tarbh NR4073, Boglach Mhòr NM5623
bonn nm buinn g buinn, bonnan plheel, sole, foundation, bottomAllt Bhuinne NN6348
borrach nm borraich grough hill grassBorrach NS0226
bota nm botaichean plriver bank, moundBot na Gile NB4848, Botan Ruairidh NB3745
both nm botha g bothan plcottage, hutBoth Ruadh NB0621, Allt nam Bothan NN3709
bradan nm bradain g bradain plsalmonLoch nam Bradan NB3525, Allt Teanga Bradan NG5122
bràigh nm bràighe, bràghad g bràigheachan plupper part, upland countryAllt a’ Chas Bràighe NB0021, Allt Bràigh Bac NN3188
bràthair nm bràthar g bràithrean pl (also bràthairean)brother, rock (especially pairs of rocks)Leac nam Bràthairean NM7230, Na Bràthairean NL9538
breac adjspeckled, spottedCaisteal Breac NH5868, Càrn Breac NH0452
breac nm bric g bric pltroutEilean nam Breac NM7091, Loch nam Breac NC6958
breckanglicised form of breacCarrabreck HU3680, Clachbreck NR7675
breug nf brèige g breugan pllie, falsehoodRubha na Brèige NC0519
breun adjfoul, stinking, filthyBreun Loch NH5568, Am Breun Chamas NN1075
bricsee breacLoch na Bric NR8089
broc nm bruic g bruic plbadgerRubha nam Broc NM7769, Sròn nam Broc NJ1805
brochan nm brochain g brochain plporridge, gruelCoille Bhrochain NN9061, Coire Bhrochain NN9599
bròg nf bròige g brògan plbootStob na Bròige NN1952
bruach nf bruaich g bruaichean plbank, brinkBruach an Fhraoich NC3940, Bruach an Iaruinn NR9023
bruicsee brocSròn na Bruic NR9593
bruthach nmf bruthaich g bruthaichean plbrae, ascentRuadh‑bruthach NF6163, Bruthach Breac NR2945
buachaill nm buachaille g buachaillean plcow‑herd, shepherdTom nam Buachaillean NN0405, Am Buachaille NN7494
buaile nf buailtean plcattle‑foldBuaile Bhuidhe NA9925, Buaile Dhubh NG8790
buicsee bocAllt a’ Bhuic ND0535, Bàgh Buic NR9170
buidhe adjyellowAllt Coire Buidhe NC7144, Buidheanach Burn NN9594
buinsee bun
buinnsee bonnAllt Bhuinne NN6348
bùirich nmfroaring, bellowing (especially of deer)Allt a’ Bhùirich NC2401, Coire Bhùirich NN5671
bùirnsee bùrn
bun nm buin, buna g buin, bunan plbase, foot, foundationBun a’ Ghlinne NB5244, Bun an Uillt NF8219
bùrn nm bùirn gwater, not applied to salt waterCreag Àrd a’ Bhùirn NH5275, Tobar Bhùirn ND2034
bùth nm bùtha g bùthan, bùithean plbooth, hut, cottageCamas nam Bùth NC1444, Cnoc nam Bùth NH5674
cabar nm cabair g cabair plantler, horn, poleGlac nan Cabar NH3342, An Cabar NH4466
cabhsair nm cabhsair g cabhsairean plcausewayAn Cabhsair NH7516, Cabhsair ND1648
cachaileith nf cachaileithe g cachaileithean plfield gate, hurdleCachaileith Liath NN6916, Allt na Cachaileith NN9561
cadha nm cadhan plnarrow pass, narrow ravineAn Cadha NC2350, Cadha Bàn NH0330
caibeal nm caibeil g caibealan plchapelCnoc a’ Chaibeil NR8642, Coire a’ Chaibeil NO0447
caigeann nm caiginn g caigeannan plrough mountain pass, pair, couple, braceCaigeann Mòr NR6799
cailleach nf cailliche g cailleachan plold woman, rockCailleach Croigary NB3525, Cnoc nan Cailleach NN0279
càirsee càr
càirnsee càrnLochan Càirn Deirg NN0749
caime nf caimean plcircle, curve, loopCoire na Caime NG9157, Loch na Caime NR5383
caipleach nf caiplich gplace of horsesLoch na Caiplich NF9055, Caiplich NH5437
cairidh nf cairidhean plweir, fish‑poundCnoc na Cairidh NC2232, Eilean na Cairidh NF8363
càise nm càisean plcheeseCnoc a’ Chàise NC1743, Creag Chàise NB1909
caise nfsteepness, stream of waterLoch Caise ND0246, Coire na Caise NM7025
caiseal nm caiseil g caisealan plalternative form of caistealTom Chaiseil NN7857, Craigcaiseal NS4499
caisteal nm caisteil g caistealan plstone wall, stone fort, castleNa Caistealan NM6856, Allt a’ Chaisteil NC7257
caitsee catLochan a’ Chait NN3962
cala nm cala g calaidhean plalternative form of caladhCala na Creige NM9680
caladh nm calaidh g calaidhean plharbour, port, shore, ferry, bayCaladh NH5754, Tom Caladh nam Freum NM9977
calamanalternative form of calmanAllt nan Calaman NR9734
call nm calla gthe act of dropping, loss, damageBad a’ Challa NG7971, Caochan a’ Challa NH5533
calltainn nm calltainn(e) ghazelCreag a’ Challtainne NN9347, Sgiath Challtainne NN4108
calman nm calmain gdoveMeall nan Calman NH2806, Uamh nan Calman NM8029
cam adjcrookedAllt Cam NB2209, Cam Chreag NN5838
camas nm camais gchannel, bay, harbourCamas a’ Bhàta NG7371, An Camas Aiseig NN0164
cambusanglicised form of camasCambusbeg NN6605, Cambuscairn NX8585
canach nmf canaich gcotton grass, bog cottonLochan na Canaich NM6855, Càrn na Canaich NH0982
caochan nm caochain g caochanan plstreamletRuigh Caochan Dubh NN9981, Allt Caochan NG9127
caol adjnarrowAllt Caol NC5258, Àrd Caol NB2301
caolas nm caolais g caolais plnarrow, straitCaolas a Deas NB3609, Caolas an Eilein NA9821
caora nf caorach g caoraich, caoirich plsheepCàrn nan Caorach NH1685, Cnoc nan Caorach NB4441
caorann nf caorainn growan tree, mountain ashCnoc nan Caorann NR9296, Creag nan Caorann NN3020
capall nm capaill g capaill plhorse, mareStuchdan Capaill NS0478, Uamh Capaill NS0952
càr nm càir g càraichean plalternative form of càtharCàr Choille NC2408, Càr an Daimh NM6483
carach adjwindingCnoc Carach NM6547, Eilean Carach NG7614
càrn nm càirn, cùirn g càirn, cùirn plheap of stonesCàrn a’ Mhàim NN9995, Càrn a’ Bhainne NH4436
càrnach nm càrnaich gstony ground, quarryCàrnach NH0196, Càrnach Biorach NN2000
carraig nf carraige g carraigean plrock, fishing rock, promontory, cliffNa Carraigean NM1556, Sròn na Carraige NS0077
carrickanglicised form of carraigCarrick NR9087, Carrickcorie NX1430
cas adjsteepAllt Cas Leac NN1445, Càrn Cas nan Gabhar NH5280
cat nm cait g cait plcatAllt a’ Chait ND2146, Creag a’ Chait NH5498
cath nm catha g cathan, cathannan plbattleAchadh a’ Chatha NH7704, Fèith a’ Chatha NM8683
cathair nf cathrach g cathraichean plseat, bench, fortifiedplaceCathair Mhic Dhiarmaid NM5169, Càrn na Cathrach NH3326
càthar nm càthair gmossy soft boggy groundCàthar an Fhèidh NN4076, Càthar na Seilge NN1768
cathrach, cathraicheansee cathairLoch na Cathrach Duibhe NG8990
ceann nm cinn g cinn plhead, headland, point, topCeann a’ Bhàigh NG2196, Ceann Buidhe NR9397
ceap nm cip g ceapan, ceapannan plblockCeap Liath NM6625, Allt nan Ceap NH2747
ceapach nmf ceapaich g ceapaich pltillage plotCeapach NN5813, A’ Cheapach NH1785
cearc nf circe g cearcan plhenBad na Circe NH7277, Rubha nan Cearc NM3125
cearcall nm cearcaill g cearcaill, cearcallan plcircle, hoopAn Cearcall NL5987, Cearcall Dubh NG8541
ceàrd nm ceàird g ceàrdan plcraftsman, smithBruach nan Ceàrd NR7786, Cnoc nan Ceàrd NH4031
ceàrdach nf ceàrdaich g ceàrdaichean plsmithy, forgeCàrn na Ceàrdaich NC3809, Coille na Ceàrdaich NH3629
ceathach nm ceathaich g ceathaich plmistCoire Cheathaich ND0329, Allt Cheathaich NN4034
ceathramh nm ceathraimh g ceathramhan plquarterCnoc a’ Cheathraimh NC7608, Meall a’ Cheathraimh NN5779
ch‑A word starting ch is often a lenited form of a word starting c
cìchesee cìochAllt na Cìche NH1216
cill nf cille g cillean, cilltean plchurch, burial placeCille Maire NG5517, Cnoc na Cille NG1951
cinnsee ceannSgeir Mhaola Cinn NR8772
cìoch nf cìche g cìochan plnipple, papCìoch Mhòr NH4486, Coire na Cìche NH4784
cipsee ceap
circesee cearcBealach Coire na Circe NG4427
cìrean nm cìrein g cìreanan plcomb, honey‑comb, sheepCìrean Geardail NC0034, An Cìrean NC0333
ciste nfgrave, chestCiste Mearad NJ0104, Ciste Dhubh NH0616
clach nf cloiche g clachan plstoneClach na Sròine NC2533, Clach an Rìgh NC6839
clachan nm clachain gvillageClachan Àrd NB2246, Clachan a’ Ghobha NB5141
cladach nm cladaich g cladaichean plshore, beach, coastCladach a’ Ghlinne NG5116, Cladach Mòr NF7173
claddachanglicised form of cladachGarry‑claddach NF8161, Claddach NR1653
cladh nm claidh, cladha g cladhan plburial‑ground, mound, dykeCladh nan Sasunnach NH0066, Cladh Mhicheil NB5447
claidheamh nm claidheimh g claidhnean plswordSgùrr a’ Chlaidheimh NG9503, Beinn a’ Chlaidheimh NH0577
claigeann nm claiginn g claignean plskull, headClaigeann Mòr NF0899
claigionnnon‑standard form of claigeannAn Claigionn NH5278, Claigionn na Sròine NN1281
clàirsee clàrLoch a’ Chlàir NL9844
clais nf claise g claisean plnarrow valley or hollow, ditchClais Daimh NN8974, Clais Odhar NO0374
clamhan nm clamhain g clamhain plbuzzard, kiteCreag a’ Chlamhain NH3294, Bad a’ Chlamhain ND1849
claon adjsloping, awryClaonairigh NN0504, Claon Leitir NH1100
clàr nm clàir g clàran plflat stretch of ground, any smooth surfaceClàr Beag NB1115, Doire nan Clàr NH2905
clèireach nm clèirich g clèirich plclericAllt a’ Chlèirich NH0022, Cruach ClèirichNR9097
cleit, cleite nf cleite g cleitean, cleiteachan plrock, cliffCleit Ruadh ND1730, Cleite Loisgte NF9876
cloichesee clachFas na Cloiche NN0248
cluain nf cluaine g cluaintean, cluainean plmeadow, lawnAllt Cluain‑àirighe NG7505, Na Cluainean NN1988
cnàmh nm cnàimh g cnàmhan plboneCoire nan Cnàmh NG9705, Loch nan Cnàmh NB4027
cnap nm cnaip g cnapan plhillock, lump, little hillAn Cnap NG7526, Cnapan Garbh NN9886
cnoc nm cnuic g cnuic plround hill, hillock, knollCnoc an Tairbh NB5348, Cnoc Drochaid NM6892
còig numfiveInnean Còig Cailleichean NR5912
coileach nm coilich g coilich plcockCnoc nan Coileach NR6999, An Coileach NG0892
coille nf coilltean plwood, forest, groveCoille NR2468, Sròn Dà Choille NN2435
coinsee cùAllt Toll a’ Choin NH1443
coinean nm coinein g coineanan plrabbitiLoch nan Coinean NC6746, Eilean nan Coinean NR7796
còinneach nf còinnich gmossCòinneach Mhòr NG9460
coirce nmoatsDruim a’ Choirce NM4788, Achadh a’ Choirce NC6805
coire nm coireachan plcorrie, hollow on the side of a hill or between hills (literally ’cauldron’)Coire Glas NR9047, Allt Choire Odhair NJ0526
còissee còsAllt a’ Chòis NG7838
comar nm comair g comaran plconfluence of streamsAbhainn a’ Chomair NH1557, Allt a’ Chomair NH2157
consee cùCoire nan Con NH4386, Meall nan Con NC5829
conasg nm conaisg ggorseAn Conasg NH4579, Cnoc a’ Chonaisg NH3856
conasgach adjcovered in gorseCreagan Conasgach NR9672, Bealach Conasgach NN5402
còrr nmhorn, corner, endCòrr Bhàn NR6010, Còrr Bheinn NM9708
corr, corra adjpointedCorra‑Bheinn NM5732
corra nfheron, craneRubha nan Corra NM7468, Sgeir Poll nan Corra NM7107
corrach adjsteep, eminent, loftyCorrach Bheinn NM9321, Caisteal Corrach NN6412
corran nm corrain g corrain plsickle, headlandAn Corran NH5972, Corran Bàn NF7010
còs nm còis g còsan plnookEas a’ Chòis NN1436, Sgòrr a’ Chòise NN0855
crainnsee crannÀird a’ Chrainn NM4118
craisgsee crasgBeinn a’ Chraisg NC2359
crann nm crainn, croinn g crainn, croinn pltree, mast, ploughCreag a’ Chroinn NL6597, Sloc a’ Chroinn NR4098
crannag nf crannaig g crannagan plartificial islandEas a’ Chrannaig NS0225, Crannag NF7004
craobh nf craoibhe g craobhan pltreeLeac nan Craobh NG5720, Bac na Craoibhe NJ1013
craobhach adjcovered in woodCreag Chraobhach NC6227
crasg nf craisg g crasgan plcrossingAn Crasg NH0890, Cnoc na Craisg NH6156
creachann nm creachainn g creachannan plbare, wind‑swept summitSgeir nan Creachann NF8854
creag nf creige g creagan plcrag, rock, cliffCreag Chàise NB1909, Coire na Creige NC1721
creagach adjrockyToll Creagach NH1513, Cnoc Creagach NH4460
creamh nm creamha gwild garlic, gentian, leekAllt Creamha NN4737, Creag Creamha NR7935
creigesee creagCarn na Creige NG8832
crìoch nf crìche g crìochan plboundaryCreag na Crìche NC9151, Allt na Crìche NC9150
critheann nm crithinn gaspen treeAllt Crithinn NC7522, Lùb Craobh Crithinn NN3947
crò nm crotha, crothadh g cròitean plsheep pen, fold, circleCamas na Cròtha NB0320, Cnoc na Cròtha NB3529
cròcach adjbranched, antleredAllt Cròcach NH5388, Loch Cròcach NC6459
crodh nm cruidh gcattleMeall a’ Chruidh NB0117, Port a’ Chruidh NR9258
croich nf croiche g croichean plgallowsRubha na Croiche NN0062, Càrn na Croiche NH6572
croinnsee crannRubha Croinn NM7838
crois nf croise g croisean plcrossAn Crois‑eilean NF7964, Allt na Croise NM9679
croit nf croite g croitean plcroft, humpCàrn na Croite NH8431, Croit Darach NR5370
cròiteansee crò
crom adjcrookedCrom Allt NC2406, Crom Leitir NJ2610
crotha, crothadhsee cròAllt Gleann Crotha NN5020
cruach nf cruaiche g cruachan plheap, stack, bold hillCruach NN3316, Cruach a’ Chaise NS1891
crùbach nm crùbaich glame manCnoc a’ Chrùbaich Mhòir NC8716
cruidhsee crodhMeall Cruidh NN1241
crùn nm crùin g crùintean plcrownCnoc Crùn na Maoil NR4148, Crùn a’ Bhràghad NG2856
cù nm coin g coin, con (g) pldogCoire nan Con NH4386, Meall nan Con NC5829
cuach nf cuaich g cuachan plhollow of a hill, cockleAllt a’ Chuaich NJ1033, Meall Chuaich NN7187
cuan nm cuain g cuantan plsea, ocean, large lakeCuan Mòr NM4157, Sgeir a’ Chuain NG2158
cuidhe nf cuidhe gfold, pen, enclosureCuidhe Chrom NN4324, Lochan na Cuidhe NH2831
cùil nf cùile g cùiltean plnook, corner, nicheCùil a’ Mhadaidh ND0448, Cùil a’ Mhuic NM8091
cùilsee cùlRubha Cùil NM7308
cuilc nf cuilce g cuilcean plreedGlac nan Cuilc NG8090, Leac na Cuilce NG7977
cuileann nm cuilinn ghollyTorran Cuilinn NH0155, Rubha Cuilinn NM9105
cùilteansee cùl and cùilNa Cùiltean NR5464
cuing nf cuinge g cuingean plnarrow straitCreag na Cuinge ND0819, Cuing‑sgeir NR3968
cùirn seecàrnCùirn Dearga NH0091
cuithe nf cuitheachan plpit, narrow glen, deep moist place, patch of snowCuithe Lachlainn NF7974, Loch na Cuith Moire NF7323
cùl nm cùil g cùiltean plbackPort Cùl a’ Mhill NM3924, Spot a’ Chùil ND0526
cumha(i)ng nm cumhaing gnarrow place, defileCumhang a’ Ghlinne NG8640, Allt a’ Chumhaing NG8039
cumhang adjnarrowAllt Cumhang NN3533, Bealach Cumhang NG5045
cumhann adjalternative form of cumhangFeadan Cumhann NM6523, Rubha Cumhann NM7068
cumhann nm cumhainn galternative form of cumha(i)ngAllt a’ Chumhainn NN1962, Loch a’ Chumhainn NM4152
curach nf curaich g curaichean plmarsh, fen, bogGleann Curachain NH4308, Port na Curaich NM2621
dà numtwoMeall Dà Chloich NN7962
dabhach nf dabhaich g dabhcha, dabhaichean plvat, large tub; land division, davoch (ancient Scottish land measurement)Loch an DabhaichNN7296, Cnoc Dabhaich NC0723
dail nf dalach g dailean plhaugh, level field by a riverDail an Eais NM9964, Dail an Òir NN1625
dalanglicised form of dailDal MoreNH6568, Dalbreck NC7415
damh nm daimh g daimh plox, stagCreag an Daimh NC9058, Dùn Daimh NN4863
daoinesee duineLochan nan Daoine NM4443
darach nm daraich goakTòrr an Daraich NN0376, Coire Daraich NG4529
darrochanglicised form of darachKnockdarroch NN9655, Tordarroch NH6733
dearcag nf dearcaig g dearcagan plberryTòrr nan Dearcag ND0856, Allt Dearcaige NJ1113
dearg adjredAllt Dearg NH6580, Bealach Dearg NH2243
deas adjsouthCroic a Deas NF7129, Gleann Deas NR2169
derryanglicised form of doireGlen Derry NO0396, Loch Derry NX2573
dh‑A word starting dh is often a lenited form of a word starting d
dìg nf dìge g dìgean plditch, wall of loose stonesAllt na Dìge Moire NC3144, Dìg Ghorm NR8764
dìollaid nf dìollaide g dìollaidean plsaddleAn Dìollaid NO0797, Bealach na Dìollaide NS2297
dìseart nmhermit’s retreatPort an Dìseart NM2924, Cladh an Dìseart NM2824
dìthreabh nf dìthreibh g dìthreabhan plwilderness, the less cultivated parts of a districtLoch Dìthreabh na Cuileige NG7741
dòbhran nm dòbhrain g dòbhrain plotterCnap an Dòbhrain NJ0806, Tòrr an Dòbhrain NR3343
doire nmf doirean, doireachan plgrove, thicketSròn Doire NR8378, Toll Doire NM5641
dòirlinn nf dòirlinne g dòirlinnean plisthmus, peninsula, stony part of the shoreAn Dòirlinn NF7317, Tòrr na Dòirlinne NM6058
domhainalternative form of domhainnCamas Domhain NG8307, Gleann Domhain NM8610
domhainn adjdeep, hollowAllt Domhainn NH6180, Chlais Domhainn NC1860
donn adjbrownLochan Donn NM7188, Maol Donn NM7431
dorch adjdark, black, dusky, mysteriousRèidh Dorch NJ1715, Glendorch NS8718
dorchaalternative form of dorchRuigh Dorcha NN9273, Slochd Dorcha NM4771
dòrn nm dùirn g dùirn plfist, fist‑sized pebbleDùn Dùirn NR6907, Uamh Gill’an Dùirn NM6901
drimanglicised form of druimDrimbuie NN0322, Drimlee NN1416
dris nf drise g drisean plbrambleAllt Doire na Drise NM6283, Beinn na Drise NM4742
driseach adjcovered in bramblesRubha Driseach NR9896, Torran Driseach NM5652
drochaid nf drochaide g drochaidean plbridgeCàrn na Drochaide NO1293, Drochaid a’ Chadha NG8640
droigheann nm droighinn gbramble, blackthornPort nan Droigheann NM4419, Lagan Droigheann NR7148
droma, dromannansee druimSròn an Droma NM7600
druid nm druidean plstarlingTòrr nan Druidean NM9779, Cnoc Druidean NM2723
druim nm droma g dromannan plridgePloc an Droma NG8186
drumanglicised form of druimDrumbain NJ2749, Drumbeg NC1232
dubh adjblackPoll Dubh NH4061, Rubha Dubh NC8068
duine nm duine g daoine plman, person, peopleLeac an Duine NN1106, Sloc nan Daoine NF8315
dùirnsee dòrnDùn Dùirn NR6907, Uamh Gill’an Dùirn NM6901
dùn nm dùin g dùin plfortress, castle, heapAn Dùn NC8566, Dùn a’ Bhealaich NR7376
each nm eich g eich plhorseMòine nan Each NN5013, Rubha nan Each NB0320
eadar prbetweenCnoc Eadar Dà Bheinn NB1402, Ùidh Eadar Dà Loch NC2749
eag nf eige g eagan plnotch, gapDruim na h‑Eige NB4257, Sgùrr na h‑Eige NH0527
eagach adjjaggedAonach Eagach NN1558
eaglais nf eaglaise g eaglaisean plchurchAllt na h‑Eaglaise NC8659, Beinn na h‑Eaglaise NG9052
eala nf eala, ealaidh g ealachan plswanLoch nan Ealachan NC6751
ear adjeastTràigh Ear NF8276, Cathadail an Ear NB0910
earb nf earba g earbaichean plroeLòn nan Earb NG4168, Rubha na h‑Earba NM9155
earrann nf earrainn g earrannan plshare, portion, section of landCnoc nan Earrannan NR5164, Dubh Earrainn NR7458
eas nm easa g easan plwaterfall, cataractAllt an Eas Mhòir NO1599, Eas a’ Bhàinne NH2703
easg nmf easga g easgan plmarsh, swamp, ditch formed by natureAn t‑Easg Leathain NN8069
eichsee eachAllt an Eich Dhuibh NH4112
eidheann nf eidhne givyCreag na h‑Eidhne NM5539, Badan Eidhne NM9114
eigesee eagBealach na h‑Eige NH1327
èilde, èildeansee eilid
eileach nm eilich g eilichean plstony place, mill lade, mill dam, mound, isletEileach an Naoimh NM6309, An t‑Eileach NN6496
èileag nf èileige g èileagan pldeer‑trapLoch Èileag NC3006, Allt Èileag NC3007
eilean nm eilein g eileanan plislandEilean a’ Bhàta NG8034, Eilean a’ Chait NG8034
eilich, eilicheansee eileachLoch an Eilich NG9991
eilid nf èilde g èildean plhind, female of the red deerBeinn Èilde NN5685, Camas na h‑Èilde NM7084
eldrick, eldriganglicised forms of èileagBlack Eldrick NX7354, High Eldrig NX2569
ellananglicised form of eileanEllanmore ND2337, Ellangowan NX9874
elrickanglicised form of èileagLittle Elrick NJ9244, Drumelrick Hill NJ5518
eòinsee eunLoch an Eòin NC7014
eòrna nmbarleyEilean an Eòrna NC4401, Aonan an Eòrna NR3776
eun nm eòin g eòin plbird, fowlLoch nan Eun NC9254, Coire nan Eun NH2047
fada adjlongAllt Fada NC7551, Bogha Fada NM2154
fadhail nf fadhail, fadhlach g fadhlaichean plextensive beach, tidal fordFadhail Losgaintir NG0698, Fadhail Sheileboist NG0697
faing nf fainge g faingean plsheep pen, fankTom na Faing NB4248, Tràigh na Fainge NB4636
faire nf fairean plwatch, lookoutBeinn na Faire NR6017, Allt na Faire NH3489
fàl nm fàil g fàil plhedge, fence, foldSgeir Fàil NB1137, Allt Àirigh Fàil NB2225
fàilsee fàl
fang nfalternative form of faingFang Bhuidhe NN2142, Fang nan Each NG1553
faodhail nf faodhalach g faodhalaichean plalternative form of fadhailFaodhail Dhubh NM6471, Allt na Faodhalach NS1493
faoileag nf faoileige g faoileagan plsea gullEilean na Faoileige NH2903, Loch na Faoileige NC2119
faoileann nf faoilinn g faoileannan plalternative form of faoileagLoch na Faoilinn NF8051, Port na Faoilinn NM7430
fas nmnon‑standard form of fasadhFas na Cloiche NN0248
fàsach nmf fàsaich g fàsaichean plwilderness, mountain, hill edge, borderFàsach NG1849, Rubha nam Fàsaichean NM7290
fasadh nm fasaidh gstance, station, level spotFasadh an Fhamhair NM7870
fasgadh nm fasgaidh g fasgadhean plshelter, fold, pen‑fold for cattleAm Fasgadh NN0169, Tigh Fasgaidh NG8727
feadag nf feadaige g feadagan plflute, whistle, ploverBàgh nam Feadag NF8757, Cnoc na Feadaige ND0769
feadan nm feadain g feadanan plreed, canal, opening, streamletAllt Feadain Bhàin NN2054, Bealach an Fheadain NG8132
feannag nf feannaige g feannag plcrow, lazy bedRubha nam Feannag NM4199, Druim nam Feannag NH2997
fear nm fir g fir plmanBlàr nam Fear Mòra NC1425, Fear an Fhèilidh NM6020
fearann nm fearainn gland, estate, farm, earthFearann Làimhrige NM4196, Fearann‑Coille NS1674
feàrna nfalder treeRubha Feàrna NM9977, Allt Feàrna NC7532
fèidhsee fiadhEilean Ceann Fèidh NM7284
fèith nf fèithe g fèithichean plbog, underground stream, bog channelAllt na Fèithe Baine NH0759, Bealach na Fèithe NC3741
feòirsee feurEilean Feòir NM5338
fernanglicised form offeàrnaArdfern NM8004, Bogfern NJ7758, Drimfern NN0814
feur nm feòir ggrass, haySgeir an Fheòir NG8037, Creag an Fheòir NH2411
feusag nf feusaig g feusagan plbeardCreag Feusag NH2133, Glac na Feusaige NN1339
fh‑A word starting fh is often a lenited form of a word starting f
fiacail nf fiacla g fiaclan pltoothCàrn nam Fiaclan NH1245, Fiaclan Garbha NN2494
fiaclach adjserrated, tooth‑shapedÀth Fiaclach NM8316, Druim Fiaclach NM8078
fiadh nm fèidh g fèidh pldeerEilean an Fhèidh NH0596, Creag an Fhèidh NN3218
finanglicised form of fionnFincraigs NO3622, Fingask NO3918
fiodhag nf fiodhaige g fiodhagan plbird‑cherry, wild figAllt nam Fiodhag NH3223, Loch nam Fiodhag NH3123
fionn adjwhite, fair, blessed, holyCraigfionn NX4593, Fionn Phort NM7533
firsee fearFir Bhreugach NG4470
fireach nm firich g firichean plhigh barren ground, mountain, moorFireach na Mòine NN2326, Am Fireach NH0978
fitheach nm fithich g fithich plravenCreag an Fhithich NC2553, Cnoc an Fhithich NC9758
fliuch adjwetFliuch Choire NH2372, Eas Fliuch Leirg NN2830
fo dheas adjnon‑standard form of bho dheasCas fo Dheas NF8231
fo thuath adjnon‑standard form of bho thuathTràigh Baile fo Thuath NF9087
fraoch nm fraoich gheatherÀird an Fhraoich NF7270, Coire an Fhraoich NH0474
frith adjsmallAn Fhrith Aìrd NG8303
frìth nf frìthe g frìthean pldeer forest, heath, moorAbhainn na Frìthe NC8327, Srath na Frìthe NC8327
fuar adjcold, chillyFuar Achadh NR9148, Allt Fuar NJ1420
fuaran nm fuarain g fuarain, fuaranan plwell spring, green spotFuaran Mòr NC4640, Cnoc Fuarain ND1134
gabhar nf gabhair g gaibhre plalternative form of gobharStob Gaibhre NN0646, Eilean nan Gabhar NM6157
gaimhnesee gamhainnAllt Fèith nan Gaimhne NH2159
gaineamhach adjsandyMeall Gaineamhach NG6949, Lochan Gaineamhach NH0945
gainneamh, gainmheach nf gainneimh, gainmhich gsand, gravel, sea‑shoreGaineamh Mhòr NG8075, Loch na Gaineimh NC7630
gairtsee gart
Gall nm goill g goill plforeigner, lowlander, stoneClach nan Gall NH7282, Rubha nan Gall NB4738
gamhainn nf gaimhne, gamhna g gaimhne, gamhna plstirk (a nickname for a resident of the Isle of Gigha)Loch nan Gamhna NC6458, Fèith Gamhna ND0157
gaoth nf gaoithe g gaothan plwindBealach Gaoithe NH2456, Creag na Gaoithe NH1241
gaothach adjwindyCnoc Gaothach NR8495, Bealach Gaothach NM9033
gàradhnon‑standard form of gàrradhAllt a’ Gàraidh NG1747, Rubha Gàraidh NH3100
garbh adjrough, coarseAllt Garbh NC2759, Garbh Choire NC3019
gàrradh nm gàrradh g gàrraidhean plden, dyke, enclosureAn Gàrradh NM6020, Cnap nan Gàrradh NN3412
gart nm gairt gfield, enclosed corn‑landSean‑Ghairt NR3867, Lùb Gairt Bhig NN3044
gead nf gid g geadan plrig, narrow strip of land, lazy‑bedGead a’ Bhodaich NM6556, Gead Dhubh NG8284
gèadh nmf geòidh g geòidh plgooseLoch nan Geòidh NR1852, Creagan Geòidh NN1327
geal adj ghil gwhite, clearAn Dùn Geal NN7447, Gleann Geal NM7250
geàrr adjshortGeàrr Aonach NN1555
geàrraidh nm geàrraidhean plland around a township, enclosureGeàrraidh a Deas NB4748, Geàrraidh Amadal NB4657
geata nm geataichean, geatachan plgateGeata Gleann Goibhre NH4347, Geata Dearg NN6995
geoanglicised form of geodhaGeo Bhàta NF7345
geodha nm geodhachan, geodhaichean plchasm, ravineGeodha an Fhaing NF7274, Geodha Bàn NC3871
geòidhsee gèadhLoch Geòidh NM9503
gh‑A word starting gh is often a lenited form of a word starting g
ghil adjsee gealLoch an Easa Ghil NB2025, Allt Lòin Ghil ND1035
ghlais adjsee glasAllt a’ Choire Ghlais NN5265, Coire an Eich Ghlais NH1278
gidsee gead
gil nf gile g gilean plravine, water courseGil Ha‑cleit NG0287, Gil Dhubh NG1294
gille nm gillean plboy, ladLoch nan Gillean NH6892, Coire nan Gillean NH5977
giubhas nmalternative form of giuthasSròn nan Giubhas NN2446, Rubha Giubhais NH1099
giuthas nm giuthais gfirLòn Giuthas nan Leac NH4889
glac nf glaic(e) g glacan plhollow, small valleyGlac Bhàn NH0197, Glac Chrom NR8066
glackanglicised form of glacGlackmore NH6051, Glackmuick NJ3642
glaise adjsee glasAllt Creige Glaise NS0885, Lochan na Bà Glaise NM7188
glas adj ghlais (m) glaise (f) ggrey, greenCoire Glas NC6927, Dùn Glas ND0617
gleann nm glinn g glinn, gleanntan plnarrow valley, dale, glenAn Gleann NM7106, Allt a’ Ghlinne NH5390
glenanglicised form of gleannInverglen NN0901, Glen Albyn NH6138
glinnsee gleannMullach a’ Ghlinne NH3601
glumag nf glumaig g glumagan plpuddle, deep hole or poolAllt na Glaic Glumag NG7023
gob nm guib g guib plpoint, beakGob na Hoe NG1954, Gob an Tùir NG8827
gobha nm gobhann, gobhainn g goibhnean plblacksmithUamh nan Goibhnean NR2742, Maol Baile a’ Ghobhain NG7978
gobhar nmf gobhair, goibhre g gobhair, goibhrean plgoatAllt na Goibhre NH1473, Meall nan Gobhar NC1903
gòbhlach adjforkedCadha Gòbhlach NH0682, Lochan Gòbhlach NH4274
goibhneansee gobha
goibhre, goibhreansee gobharSròn na Goibhre NH1372
Goillsee GallBiod a’ Ghoill NG2759
goirtean nm goirtein g goirteanan plfield, arable enclosure, arable land, parkLoch nan Goirtean NB2444, Goirtean Bàn NR3460
gorm adjgreen, blue, azurePoll Gorm NB3221, Coire Gorm NC3628
gowananglicised form of gobhaTirrygowan NJ6711, Balnagowan NJ5100, Ardgowan NS2073
goweranglicised form of gobharAuchengower NS2184, Bargower NS4732
grànda adjugly, nasty, grimCamas Grànda NG7270, Allt Grànda NH1170
grian nf grèine g grianan plsunAllt na Grèine NH4295, Rubha na Grèine NB5633
grianan nm grianain gsunny hillockRubha Grianain NR7486, Eilean Grianain NR8142
gualann nf gualainn, guailne g guailnean, guaillean plshoulder of a hill, elbow, cornerGualann nan Càrn NR7169, A’ Ghualann NC8367
guibsee gobLoch a’ Ghuib Àird NC1823
gun prwithoutLoch gun Tòin NH5350, Aodann gun Nighe NM4335
iar adjwest, westerlyTràigh Iar NG0396, Ceann Iar NF6162
iasgair nm iasgair g iasgairean plfishermanAn t‑Iasgair NG3574, Loch an Iasgair NF7430
ìghnesee nighean
imir nm imire g imirean plrig, ridge of landImir Crom NN2433, Imir Fada NC2922
imrich nf imriche g imrichean plremoval, flittingGuala na h‑Imrich NF7969, Bealach na h‑Imrich NC3650
inbhir nm inbhirean plplace of meeting of rivers, confluenceAn t‑Inbhir NN4048, Meall InbhirNN0736
inchanglicised form of innisInchmore NH3940, Inchnacaorach NH8449
inghinnsee nigheanFuaran na h‑Inghinn NN7454, Loch na h‑Inghinn NB3524
innean nm innein g inneanan planvil, anvil‑shaped hillAn t‑Innean Mòr NN1856, Achlais an Innein NM9164
innis nf ìnnse g ìnnsean, ìnnseachan plisland, meadow, resting place for cattleInnisdaimh NN4635, Cnoc na h‑Ìnnse NC9847
inveranglicised form of inbhirInverfyne NN1912, Inverlochy NJ1324
ìobairt nf ìobairte g ìobairtean ploffering, church‑land, sacrificeClach na h‑Ìobairt NN8765, Tom na h‑Ìobairt NN8865
ìochdar nm ìochdair g ìochdaran pllower partDruim Ìochdair NN5812, Creag Ìochdair NN7328
iola nf iolachan plfishing rock, fishing bank, fishing stationBàrr Iola NR9382, An Iola NN0048
iolair(e) nmf iolaire g iolairean pleagleTom na h‑Iolaire NC9221, Creag na h‑Iolaire NC7846
iomair nm iomaire g iomairean plalternative form of imirLùib Iomaire Mhòir NN0705, Allt nan Iomairean NM5950
ìosal adjlowTom Ìosal NB2629, Cnoc Dubh Ìosal NB3223
iubhar nm iubhair g iubharan plyewLeac an Iubhair NM9971, Meall an Iubhair NS2094
ken, kinanglicised form of ceannKenknock NN4636
kilanglicised form of cillKilmany NO3821, Kilbride NR8362
kilanglicised form of coille
kilanglicised form of ceannKilmux NO3604
killieanglicised form of coilleKilliecrankie NN9162
kinanglicised form of ceannKincraig NH8205, Kinlochmoidart NM7172
knabanglicised form of cnapThe Knab HU4840, Horse of the Knab HU4840
knockanglicised form of cnocKnock Dhu NH8380, Knock Fell NX2555
kylesanglicised form of caolasKylesmore NM6674, Claddach‑kyles NF7666
labhar adjloudAlltan Labhar NG8157, Easan Labhar NM5341
lach nf lacha g lachan plwild duck
ladhar nm ladhair, ladhra g ladhran plpaw, hoofLadhar Bheinn NG8203
lag nmf laig, luig g lagan plhollow, pit, caveLag a’ Bhàinne NM9706, Lag a’ ChoireNM4664
laimrig, làimhrig nf laimrige g laimrigean plnatural landing‑place, quay, harbourRubha Làimhrige NR5366, Sròn Làimhrige NM4787
lainnsee lann
làir, làire nf làiridh, làire(adh), làrach g làiridhean plmareCoire na Làire NM9066, Lag na Làire NG2394
làirig nf làirigean plmoor, hill, sloping hill, passLochan Làirig NN8041, Lochan na Làirige NN5939
lann nf lainn g lannan plenclosure, landLann Bhreac NN6359, Lann Mhòr NN5292
laogh nm laoigh g laoigh, laoghan plcalfBeul an Laoigh NG9936, Càrn Allt Laoigh NH9231
làrach nf làraich g làraichean plsite of a building, ruinGlac na Làraiche NN0166, Lag na Làraich NB3143
làrachsee làirLoch na Làrach NG7243
leaba, leabaidh nf leapa g leapannan plbed, lair, channel of a riverLeabaidh Fhèidh NC3002, Leabaidh a’ Mhinisteir NB4929
leac nf lic, lice g leacan plledge of a rock, flat stone, slabLeac a’ Bhàinne NM9078, Coire na Lice NN8357
leacach nf leacaich g leacaichean plbare summit, stony side of a hillLeacach NC3165, Leacach Bhreac NR9025
leacach adjstonyLochan Leacach NC6857, Coire LeacachNC5352
leamhan nm leamhain g leamhan plelmLoch na Leamhain NB2434, BeinnLeamhain NM9562
lèana nf lèanan g lèanachan plswampy plain, meadow, field of greenLèana an Fheòir NG0689, Lèana Bhàn NB4956
lèanag nf lèanaig g lèanagan plwet plain or leaLèanag Mòr a’ Bhàird ND0753
leapa, leapannansee leaba
learg nf leirg g leargan plplain, hillsideLearg an Lochain NN4015, Loch na Leirg NG8890
leathad nm leathaid, leothaid g leathaidean, leòidean plside of a hill, slopeLeathad a’ Ghlinne NF0899, Leathad an Droma NB2638
leathan(n) adjbroadLoch Leathann NB3816, Leathan Dhail NN6510
leckanglicised form of leacAuchinleckNS5521, Achleck NM4145
lèig nf lèige g lèigean plmarshy or miry pool, shallow streamDruim na Lèige NB2126, Druim Lèig a’ Bhainne NB2339
lèimsee leumRubha na Lèim NM8246
leirgsee leargLoch na Leirg NG8890
lèith, lèithesee liathAllt na Doire Lèithe NG8991
leitir nf leitire, leitreach g leitirean, leitrichean plslope, side of a hillDubh Leitir NC1734, Garbh Leitir NM7000
lèoideansee leathad
leothaidsee leathadFèith an Leothaid NH0358
leth nmhalf; with one steep side (as in Leth‑Allt ’burn with one steep side’)Leth‑Sgeir NR7389, Leth‑Allt NH2299
letteranglicised form of leitirDuiletter NN1530, Gairletter NS1884
leum nm lèim g leuman plleapLeum an Fhèidh NC0801, Leum Chaimbeulaich NS2094
lianagnon‑standard form of lèanagLianag Mhòr NC2106, Lianag na h‑Àtha NG7574
liath adj lèith(e) ggrey, blueLoch Liath NH3319, Allt na Doire Lèithe NG8991
lic, licesee leacCoire na Lice NN8357
lìnsee lìon
linn, linne nf linne g linneachan, linntean plpool, pond, lake, mill‑dam, channelLoch na Linne NB3330, Allt na Linne NN0967
lìon nm lìn g lìontan plflaxEilean nan Lìon NF9270, Cnoc nan Lìon NB1323
lios nmf lise, liosa g liosan plenclosure, garden, fortified placeSeann Lios NH5442
lisesee lios
loch nm locha g lochan pllake, arm of the seaLoch a Tuath NB1120, Loch Beag NC8863
lochan nm lochain g lochain plsmall loch or lakeLochan a’ Bhàigh NM2563, Lochan Buidhe ND0369
lòin, lòinteansee lònLochan Dubh Cùl an Lòin ND0552
loisgte adjburntLochan Loisgte NM6264, Mòine Loisgte NR7661
lòn nm lòin g lòintean plmarsh, morass, pool,meadowLòn a’ Chlèirich NG2650, Bad an Lòin NO1270
long nf luinge g longan plshipBàgh na Luinge NR4345, Camas Luinge NM8677
losgann nm losgainn g losgannan plfrog, toadLag na Losgainn NR4272, Loch Losgainn NH6693
luachar nf luachair, luachrach gplace where rushes growLòn Luachrach NG3522, Maol na Luachrach NM6323
lùb nf lùib g lùban plmeander, bendSgeir Lùb nan Ròn NR6094
lùib nf lùibe g lùibean plalternative form of lùbLùib Bhàn NC4547, Lùib Luachrach NN2043
luigsee lagPort an Luig Mhòir NG5212
luingesee longPort Bàta na Luinge NM4141
mac nm mhic gsonCoire Mhic Fhearchair NG9460, Mac isMàthair NH0687
machair nmf machrach g machraichean plextensive, low‑lying fertile groundMachair Leathann NF8277, Cruach na Machrach NR8863
madadh nm madaidh g madaidhean pldog, wolf, foxFèith nam Madadh NN7880, Leac nam Madadh NF9567
magh nmf magha g magaidh plplain, fieldMagh Torray NB0617, Magh‑cul NN5590
maigheach nf maighiche g maighichean plhareMeall nam Maigheach NM9576, Tom namMaigheach NN5616
maingsee mang
màissee màs
màm nmf màim g màman plbreast, large round hill, gapMàm Mòr NH5742, Allt a’ Mhàim NG9325
manach nm manaich g manaich plmonkAllt nam Manach NR7831, Bàrr nam Manach NR9484
mang nf maing g mangan plfawn, young hartCoire nam Mang NC4133
maol nm maoil g maoil plbare top, promontory, bare round hillCàrn Maol NH8645, Cnoc Maol Donn NC9755
marasee muirRubha na Muice Mara NN0377
màs nm màis g màsan plbuttock, bottomMàs a’ Chnuic NF9694, Màs an Rubha NB1303
màthair nf màthar g màthraichean plmother, sourceMac is Màthair NH0687, Lochan Màthair Eite NN2854
meadhan, meadhon nm meadhain, meadhoin gmeadhanan, meadhonan plmiddle, centreMeall Meadhoin NC8006, Monadh Meadhoin NM7153
meall nm mill g mill pllump, applied to a round hillMeall Buidhe ND0057
meanbh adjsmallBlàr Meanbh NN1277, Meanbh ChnocanGlen NB0022
meann nm minn g minn plkid, young roe‑deerRubha nam Meann NR5480, Sgeir nam Meann NC0834
mèinn nf mèinne g mèinnean plmine, ore
mèirleach nm mèirlich g mèirlich plthief, robberCnoc a’ Mhèirlich NG4468
meur nf meòir g meòir plfinger, branch, applied to small streamsAllt Meur nan Clach NH2144
mh‑A word starting mh is often a lenited form of a word starting m
mhicsee macCoire Mhic Fhearchair NG9460
millsee meallSròn a’ Mhill NG4843
mìn adjsoft, tender, delicate, smoothCreag Mhìn NN9047, Mhìn‑choise NN7481
minnsee meannLoch a’ Mhinn NM8612
mnàsee beanAllt na Mnà Bàine NH3899, Druim na Mnà NB2332
mòd nm mòid g mòdan plcourt, trial, meetingAllt a’ Mhòid NC5638, Tom a’ Mhòid NH5320
moilsee molCamas Chala Moil NA9923
mòine nf mònadh, mòine g mònach plpeat, moorCnoc na Mòine NC6252, Druim na Mòine NB2031
mòinteach nf mòintich g mòintichean plmossy ground, moorMòinteach a’ Lòin NB1120, Mòinteach Dhubh NN2179
mol nm moil, mola g molan plshingly beachMol a’ Chaolais NG2297, Mol a’ Deas NB3202
molach adjhairy, rough, stormyNa Lùibean Molach NC2301, Tom Molach NS2196
monaanglicised form of mòineMonabuie NN9727
mònach, mònadhsee mòine
monadh nm monaidh g monaidhean plmountain, moor, heathMonadh Beag NN1585, Allt a’ Mhonaidh NG7850
mòr adjlarge, greatMonadh Mòr NH5853, Mòr Bheinn NN7121
moreanglicised form of mòrArdmore NC2051, Auchmore NK0057
morghan nm morghain ggravel, shingle, pebbly beachLoch a’ Mhorghain NB1504, Bàgh Tòb a’ Mhorghain NB1137
muc nf muice g mucan plpigRubha na Muice Mara NN0377, Allt nam Muc NJ1321
muckanglicised form of mucCulnamuck NF6500, Drummuck NS2303
muicesee mucCoire Gleann na Muice NC3711
muighsee a‑muigh
muileann nm muilinn g muilnean, muileannan plmillDruim a’ Mhuilinn NM6042, Loch a’ Mhuilinn NC8756
muiltsee multLoch a’ Mhuilt Dhuibh NG1392
muir nmf mara g marannan plseaSloc na Mara NN1982, Taobh na Mara NR7165
mullach nm mullaich g mullaichean pltop, summitAm Mullach NO3790, Camas nam Mullach NM6962
mult nm muilt g muilt plwether, castrated ramBad nam Mult NC1741, Camas nam Mult NG7013
muran nm murain gsea bentCreag nam Muran NM7805, Eilean a’ Mhurain NF8754
na, na h‑, nam, nanforms of definite article “the”
nathair nf nathrach g nathraichean plsnake, adderMeall Nathrach NN4475, Allt nan Nathair NC7025
nead nmf nid g nid plnest, circular hollowAn Nead NH1031, Coire nan Nead NN4273
nic nfdaughter (abbreviation of nighean mhic)Loch Nic Dhomhnaill NB4949, Rubha Nic Eamoin NG2404
nighean nf nighinne, ìghne, inghinn g nigheanan pldaughter, young womanTobar nan Nighean NG2757, Allt na h‑Ighine NH2181
òb nm òbain g òbain plsmall bay, harbourÒb a’ Chlachain NF8243, Òb Dubh NG7458
ochteranglicised form of uachdarOchtertyre NN8323
odhar adjdun‑coloured, pale, yellowSròn a’ Choire Odhair NN2058, Coire Odhar NG7886
oidhche nf oidhche g oidhcheannan plnightBealach na h‑Oidhche NG8314, Loch na h‑Oidhche NH1577
òirsee òr
oitir nf oitire g oitirean plsand bank, shallowOitir Mhòr NF8157, Oitir Bheag NF8246
òr nm òir ggoldSgeir an Òir NC6164, Uamh an Òir NG9795
òrd nm ùird g òrdan, ùird plround hillBeinn Ùird NS3998, Cnoc an Ùird NH5341
òs nm òsa g òsan plmouth or outlet of a riverÒs a Muigh NB0333, Òs Uarach NB4252
pàirc nf pàirce g pàircean plfield, enclosureA’ Phàirc Loisgte NN4856, Cnoc na Pàirce NG4150
pait nf paite g paitean pllump, humpPait Fhearchair NG9384, Sgùrr na Paite NM8281
partan nm partain g partanan plsmall edible sea‑crabPoll nam Partan NM4884, Port nam Partan NM3452
peighinn nf peighinne g peighinnean plpennyland (an old Scottish land measurement)Allt Coire Pheiginn NN7451, Allt na Peighinn NG6217
ph‑A word starting ph is often a lenited form of a word starting p
plucan nm plucain g plucanan plknot, lump, piece of earthPluc Mòr NH7020
pòirsee pòr
poit nf poite gpotCoire na Poite NG8145
poll nm puill g puill plpool, pit, deep stagnant water, wet meadowPoll a’ Bhainne NG3656, Poll a’ Choire NB4231
pòr nm pòir g pòran plseed, grain, corn, cropsCaochan nam Pòran NH6434
port nm puirt g puirt plport, harbour, ferryPort a’ Bhàta NB0100, Port an Duine NM1752
preas nm pris g preasan, pris plshrub, bush, thicketPreas a’ Chrannaidh NC2809, Preas Caol NC9250
puillsee poll
puirtsee portEilean Puirt Lèithe NR6975
raineach nf rainich gfernCoire Rainich NH3975, Creag Rainich NB0331
ràmh nm ràimh g ràimh ploarEilean nan Ràmh NF7619, Loch nan Ràmh NB3229
raon nf raoin g raontan, raointean plfieldAn Raon NG7478, Raon na Ceàrdaich NC0925
ràth nmfortRàth Fhinn NN3098, Allt Ràth a’ Bheulain NM5166
rathad nm rathaid, rothaid g ròidean plroad, wayCrom‑Rathad NH6090, Bealach an Rathaid NH3848
reamhar adjfatMaol Reamhar NS3391, Meall Reamhar NN4622
rèidh nm rèidhean plsmooth, level ground, plain, meadowCoire Rèidh NC3220, Leac Rèidh NB3909
rèilig nf rèilige g rèiligean plgrave, burying place, churchFèith Rèilig NC5059
rèisgsee riasg
reochanglicised form of riabhachTynreoch NN7123, Alltreoch NO0956
riabhach adjbrindled, greyish,brownSrath Riabhach NR6388, Sròn Riabhach NO1675
riasg nm rèisg gmoor, fenThe Riasg ND3138, Tom an Rèisg NJ1515
rìgh nm rìgh g rìghrean plkingCàrn an Rìgh NC3757, Clach an Rìgh NC6839
rinn nm rinne g rinnean plpoint, promontoryRinn a’ Chrubain NR9023, Rinn Dearg NJ2908
riochanglicised form of riabhachBarranrioch NM8929, Dalrioch NR6918
rodh nm rodha gwater‑edge, water markAllt Uchd Rodha NH2539, Rubha Rodha NC0523
roid nf roide g roidean plbog myrtleCamas na Roide NG1893
ròideansee rathad
ròinsee rònLoch an Ròin NC1954
roinn nf roinne g roinnean pldivision, share, portionGob na Roinne NH0017, Rubha na Roinne NG4200
roissee ros
ròn nm ròin g ròin plsealRubha nan Ròn NF8158, Sgeir an Ròin NG6724
ros nm rois g rosan plpromontory, isthmus, peninsulaRos a’ Mheallain NG3740
rothaidsee rathadLoch an Rothaid NG1491
ruadh adjred, brownRuadh Bhealach NN1248, Rubha Ruadh NC4462
rubha nm rubhaichean plpromontory, headland, point of landSean‑Rubha NL9346, Rubha na Lice NM8029
ruighe nmf ruighean plhill‑slope, sheilingRuighe a’ Ghlaic NN7353, Allt an Ruighe Bhric NM8686, Allt na Ruighe Lèithe NH5176, Ruighean an Daimh NC5852
sabhal nm sabhail g sabhalan plbarn, granaryAllt an t‑Sabhail NH5291, Cnoc an t‑Sabhail NC5233
sac nm saic g saic, sacan plhorse loadCnoc an t‑Saic NH3398, Druim an t‑Saic NN6362
sagart nm sagairt g sagartan plpriestEilean an t‑Sagairt NM9231, Lòn an t‑Sagairt NR7081
saicsee sacCnoc an t‑Saic NH3398
saidh nf saidhe g saidhean plupright beam, postLoch Coire na Saidhe NC4436, Sgeir nan Saidhean NM7010
saighead nf saighde g saighdean plarrowLochan nan Saighead NB1705, Beinn na Saighde NB4236
sàil nf sàl, sàile, sàlach g sàilean, sàiltean plheelSàil Mhòr NH1768, Sàil Gharbh NC4134
sàilean nm sàilein g sàileanan pllittle inlet, arm of the sea, deep baySàilean Mòr NM5859, Sàilean Ruadh NM9833
sàl, sàlachsee sàilLoch na Sàlach NH3267
salach adjdirtyCamas Salach NM6861, Àirigh Shalach NH0666
saobhaidh nf saobhaidh(e) g saobhaidhean planimal‑denAllt na Saobhaidhe ND0335, Caochan na Saobhaidh NJ0609
saor nm saoir g saoir plcarpenter, wrightEilean an t‑Saoir NM1455, Lùb an t‑Saoir NM9364
seabhag nmf seabhaig g seabhagan plhawkCreag na Seabhaig NM9515, Allt na Seabhaig NH5315
seachd numsevenEilean nan Seachd Seisrichean NM4263
seagal nm seagail gryeCnoc an t‑Seagaill NC2413, Allt an t‑Seagaill NH5473
sealg nf seilg g sealgan plhunt, chaseLoch na Seilge NC9258, Srath na Seilge NC7018
seamrag nf seamraig g seamragan pltrefoil, shamrockBeinn na Seamraig NG7217, Cnoc na Seamraig NN1621
sean adjoldSean‑Àirigh NC9458, Sean‑Allt NJ2014
seangan nm seangain g seangain, seanganan plantSgeir an t‑Seangain NM7162, Allt nan Seangan NH5596
seannalternative form of seanMonadh Seann‑talaimh NH3001
searrach adjedge, pointed, sharpCoireag Searrach NH0031
searrach nm searraich g searraich plfoal, coltCnoc nan Searrach NB2330, Glac nan Searrach NG4551
seasg nf seasga g seisg, seisge plbog‑reedCnocan Seasg NH9386, Carr Seasg NR7671
seilcheag nf seilcheig g seilcheagan plsnailCreag nan Seilcheag NG8300
seileach nm seilich g seileachan plwillowFèith Seileach NG6711, Bad nan Seileach ND1131
seilgsee sealgLoch na Seilg NC3658
seisg, seisgesee seasg
sgadan nm sgadain g sgadain plherringGlac nan Sgadan NG9407, Port an Sgadain NR7084
sgarbh nm sgairbh g sgairbh plcormorant, heronRubha nan Sgarbh NB4929
sgeine, sgeineansee sgian
sgeir nf sgeire g sgeirean plsea rook, skerrySgeir a’ Choire NR4043, Sgeir nan Sgarbh NB4057
sgian nf sgeine, sgine g sgeinean, sgineachan plknifeSgian Dubh NS0675, Sgurr na Sgine NG9411
sgitheach nm sgithich ghawthornCnoc nan Sgitheach NS0199, Abhainn Sgitheach NH5162
sgoilte adjsplit, crackedAonach Sgoilte NG8302, Càrn Sgoilte NB9706
sgòr nm sgòir g sgòran, sgòraichean plnon‑standard form of sgùrrSgòr a’ Chaorainn NH4577, Sgòr an Daimh NN2971
sgòrralternative form of sgùrrSgòrr a’ Chait NN3406, Sgòrr an Fhithich NN5408
sgùrr nm sgurra g sgurran plrocky peak, sharp steep hillSgùrr a’ Bhuic NN2070, Sgùrr a’ Chaise NG5702
sh‑A word starting sh is often a lenited form of a word starting s
siarform of iarTamana Siar NB0020
sìdh nmnon‑standard form of sìth: (fairy) hillSìdh Beag NJ1713, Sìdh Mòr NJ1713
sidheannon‑standard form of sìtheanSidhean Mòr ND0556, Sidhean a’ Chlèirich NC1319
sionnach nm sionnaich g sionnaich plfoxAllt nan Sionnach NM7692, Coire an t‑Sionnaich NN1760
sìor adjconstant, eternalCarraig an t‑Sìor Shruith NM2968
sìthean nm sìthein g sìthein plfairy knoll, hillockAllt an t‑Sìthein NG4931, Cnoc nan Sìthean ND0342
sleacalternative form of leacMeall nan Sleac NN8694, Sleac Gorm NO2289
sleamhainn adjslippery, smoothLeac Shleamhuinn NF7714, Carraig Shleamhuinn NG2149
sliabh nm slèibh g slèibhtean plhigh moorland; purple moor‑grass (Molinia t‑Slèibhe caerulea)Allt a’ Choire Sliabh NG9170, Càrn an NJ1411
slios nm sliosa g sliosan plside, slopeLoch an t‑Slios NB2124, Slios Garbh NG8888
sloc nm sluic g slocan plpit, hollow, poolSloc an Tairbh NF7200, Tom an t‑Sluic NN1479
slugaid nf slugaide gquicksand, muddy place, gorgeAllt na Slugaide NB4839, Cnoc na Slugaide NB4739
sluicsee slocLochan an t‑Sluic NN8290
sneachd nm sneachda gsnowCoire an t‑Sneachda NH1927, Glac an t‑Sneachda NM4923
sobhalnon‑standard form of sabhalCnoc an t‑Sobhail NH2438
soc nm suic gpoint, snoutSoc Glas NC3272, Soc Mhic Chailein NC1743
spàrdan nm spàrdain g spàrdain, spàrdanan pllittle eminence, hill, short steep slopeAn Spàrdan NM6800, Bruthach nan Spàrdan NN7281
speireag nf speireig g speireagan plsparrow hawkCnoc nan Speireag NG3631, Creagan na Speireig NC4855
sprèidh nf sprèidhe gcattleLoch nan Sprèidh NH3893, Lag na Sprèidhe NM5521
sràid nf sràide g sràidean plroad, streetSràid Ruadh NL9547, Sràid Stac na Mòine NR2847
srath nm sratha g srathan plvalley, riverside landSrath a’ Bhàthaich NG8847, Abhainn an t‑Sratha NB1800
sròn nf sròine g srònan plnose, pointSròn Mhòr NB1429, Sròn a’ Mhill NG4843
sruth nm srutha, sruith g sruthan plcurrent, streamBun an t‑Sruth NF7366, Oban nan Sruthan NF8874
staca nm staca, staic g stacan, stacannan plhigh cliff or hill, precipiceRuadh Stac NG5123, Stac nam Bodach NN9770
staighsee a‑staigh
staimh nm staimh gsea tanglePoll an Staimh NG3764
stalla nm stallachan ploverhanging rock, steep sea rockStalla nam Manach NG9170, Stallachan Dubha NM5362
steall nf still g steallan pltorrent, cataractSteall a’ Choire NC3728, Steall an Eisg NM8154
stob nm stuib g stoban plpoint, stakeStob a’ Chaorainn NN4504, Stob a’ Chòin NN4116
strathanglicised form of srathStrathtay NN9153, Strathaird NG5317
stùc nf stùic g stùcan, stùcannan pllittle hill, cliff, pinnacleStùc a’ Bhuic NN3904, Stùc Bàn NS2996
stuibsee stob
sùbh nm sùibh g sùbhan plraspberryMeall nan Sùbh NN4539, Bruach nan Sùbh NR4964
suicsee soc
suidhe nm suidhean, suidheachan plseat, sitting or resting place, level shelfCàrn an t‑Suidhe NG8754, Suidhe Beag NJ2624
sùil nf sùla g sùilean pleye, sandy holeSùil an Ear NB1836, Sùil na Cloiche NB2320
taigh nm taighe g taighean plhouseAllt nan Taighean NM7293, Bean an Taighe NM6375
tàillear nm tàilleir g tàillearan pltailorCnoc an Tàilleir NC6036, Coire an Tàilleir NH1839
tairbeart nf tairbeirt g tarbeartan plcrossing, portage, isthmusLoch an Tairbeirt NB3419, Tairbeart NG5847
tairbhsee tarbhLuig an Tairbh NR3143
talamh nmf talamh, talmhainn g talamhan pllandSean‑Talamh NN5615, MonadhSeann‑talaimh NH3001
tana adjthin, slender, shallowLoch Tana NB3329
taobh nm taoibh g taobhan plside, way, placeTaobh a’ Ghlinne NN0372, Taobh Deas NF9692
tarbeartansee tairbeart
tarbertanglicised form of tairbeartTarbert NB1400
tarbh nm tairbh g tairbh plbullBoglach nan Tarbh NM6724, Clach anTairbh NH1568
tarsainn adjlying across, obliqueToman Tarsainn NH5121, Allt Tarsainn NH1260
tartar nm tartair gnoise, clamourUamh an Tartair NC2109
teampall nm teampaill g teampaill plchurchTeampull Bhuirgh NF7650, TeampullChriosd NF7861
teanga nf teangaidh g teangan, teangannan pltongueTeanga Bhàn NM6526, Teanga nan Each NH0350
teine nm teintean plfire, beaconTom an Teine NN2179, Cnoc an Teine NH4747
th‑A word starting th is often a lenited form of a word starting t
tibber, tiberanglicised form of tiobar: wellKnockentiber NS3939, Auchentibber NS6754
tighnon‑standard form of taighTigh an Droma NS0427, Tigh an Eilein NO1464
tillyanglicised form of tulachTillybrack NJ6619, Tillycairn NJ8331
tioram adjdryCnocan Tioram NR7552, Eilean TioramNG7873
tìr nf tìre g tìrean pllandTìr Dhubh NR9732, Tìr Chille NM3218
tòb nmbayTòb a’ Chuilinn NB1733, Tòb a’ Ghearraidh NB0216
tobar nmf tobair, tobrach g tobraichean plwell, fountain, springTobar an Easbuig NF8040, Tobar na Slàinte NH8573
tobhta nm tobhtaichean plruin with walls standingTobhta nan Druidhean NG5158, Tobhta NB0434
tobrach, tobraicheansee tobar
todhar nm todhair g todharan plfield manured by penning cattle on itTodhar Dubh NM4151, Ach’an Todhair NN0971
tòinesee tòn
toll nm tuill g tuill plhole, hollowToll Beag ND0427, Toll Creagach NH1513
tolm nm tuilm g tolman plisland in a river or near shoreTolm NB3350, Eilean Thuilm NM4791
tom nm tuim g tomannan plknoll (east), copse (west)Tom na h‑Iolaire NC9221, Loch an Tuim NB4243
tòn nf tòine g tònan plfundament, breech, anusGoirtein na Tòine NM6134, Tom na Tòine NC2630
torc nm tuirc g tuirc plboarCàrn an Tuirc NO1780
tòrr nm torra g torran plheap, hill, mountain, moundTòrr a’ Bhacain NM3821, Tòrr a’ Chruidh NG3656
tràigh nf tràighe, tràghad g tràighean, tràghannan plbeachCnoc na Tràighe NR2763, Tràigh Mhòr NB5448
trì numthreeCnoc nan Trì Tom NB3124, Lòn Trì Chrìoch NM9518
tuath adjnorthMeall Tuath NG4176, Port a Tuath NA9812
tuillsee tollRubha Uamh an Tuill NR5162
tuilmsee tolmAllt Thuilm NG0898
tuimsee tomBeinn an Tuim NM9283
tùirsee tùrCeann an Tùir NM6041
tuircsee torcCoire Allt an Tuirc NH0522
tulach nm tulaich g tulaichean plknoll, hillockTom Mòr an Tulach NB3545, Tulach an Fhuarain ND1252
tullichanglicised form of tulachCultullich NN8750, Glastullich NH1595
tullochanglicised form of tulachScoretulloch NS5836, Tulloch NH6192
tunnag nf tunnaig g tunnagan plduckLoch Tunnaig NM9101, Tòb nan Tunnag NB1433
tùr nm tùir g tùir pltowerTùr Mòr NM5545, Loch an Tùir NC1126
tyanglicised form of taighTyndrum NH5220, Tynabeinne NR2663, Tynacoille NR2763
uachdar nm uachdair g uachdaran pltop, upper part, summitUachdar NF8055, Allt an Uachdair NR8934
uaimh nf uaimhe, uamha g uaimhean, uamhan plcaveAllt na h‑Uaimhe NH7201
uaine adjgreenCnoc Uaine NG6709, Coire Uaine NH4383
uamhalternative form of uaimhUamh an Òir NG9795
uchd nm uchda g uchdan plbreast, ascent, side of a hillUchd a’ Bhlàir NM4279, Uchd an Ùird NG7931
ùidh nf ùidhe g ùidhean plisthmus, fordÙidh an Tuim NC2948, Ùidh Dhubh NC3039
ùig nf ùige g ùigean plnook, hollow, cave, den, bayBad na h‑Ùige ND0737, Bealach Ùige NG4464
uilltsee alltBad an Uillt ND2044
uinnseann nm uinnseinn gash treeAllt an Uinnseinn NC3856, Cnoc an Uinnseinn NN5517
ùirdsee òrdBeinn Ùird NS3998, Cnoc an Ùird NH5341
uisge nm uisgean, uisgeachan plwater, rain, riverUisge Dhubh NH0038
ulaidh nf ulaidhe g ulaidhean pltreasureTom na h‑Ulaidhe NN5811, Creagan na h‑Ulaidh NH2623
ùr adjnew, fresh, recentMeall Ùr a’ Bhorraich NG7137
ùruisg nm ùruisge g ùruisgean plwater spiritSruthan an Ùruisge NR5979

The background to the creation of this guide

Early in the 20th century, Ordnance Survey issued a small pamphlet, The most common Gaelic words used on the Ordnance Survey Maps, for use with the one‑inch maps of Scotland. In 1935, the Board of Celtic Studies and the University of Wales compiled a similar booklet, The most common Welsh words used on the Ordnance Survey Maps, for use with maps of Wales. This was reprinted in 1949.

Later it was decided to increase the scope of the Gaelic names pamphlet, so the Scottish Geographical Society undertook a complete recompilation and published an enlarged edition in 1951 which included a list of Scandinavian elements used in Scottish place names. In 1968, Ordnance Survey produced an A5 booklet, Place names on maps of Scotland and Wales, which combined revised versions of both earlier publications. The booklet underwent several reprints, with the last reprint published in 1995.

In the booklet, Ordnance Survey thanked Dr W F H Nicolaisen of the University of Edinburgh’s School of Scottish Studies for his advice on the Gaelic and Scandinavian elements, William Matheson, senior lecturer in the Department of Celtic Studies at the University of Edinburgh for the revised guide to Gaelic pronunciation, and the Board of Celtic Studies of the University of Wales for their help with the Welsh glossary.

In 2003, Ordnance Survey decided to update the content of the booklet, to extend the coverage to include the Scots language, and to publish the revised information electronically as a series of web pages. The resulting series of Guides, of which this is one, were published in 2004, with minor revisions to the Gaelic Guide in 2005, and was republished on GetOutside in 2019. They are not the definitive work on language influences in place names in Great Britain, but more a guide to common elements arising from Gaelic, Scandinavian, Scots and Welsh.

Ordnance Survey has benefited from the skill and expertise of various experts in reviewing the previous material and preparing these Guides. In the case of the Welsh section they are Professor Hywel Wyn Owen and Gruffudd Prys of the University of Wales in Bangor. For the Gaelic, Scots and Scandinavian sections they are Dr Anke‑Beate Stahl, Dr Simon Taylor, Peadar Morgan and the Gaelic Names Liaison Committee.

Further information and references

Top image: Amhuinnsuidhe (river shelf or ledge) Castle on Harris, Outer Hebrides, © Peter Moore, used under Creative Commons Licence via the Geograph project.

Ordnance Survey has a Gaelic names policy relating to the use and depiction of Gaelic names on their mapping and other products. Full details can be found on Gaelic Names Policies page.

Gaelic books and books and cassettes for Gaelic learners can be ordered through the web site of Comhairle nan Leabhraichean/The Gaelic Books Council (gaelicbooks.org). Information on various Gaelic‑language clubs, classes and courses around Scotland and beyond can be found on the web site of Clì Gàidhlig, the membership organisation for Gaelic learners and non‑native speakers

Details of books on Scottish place names can be found on the web site of the Scottish Place‑Name Society/Comann Ainmean‑Àite na h‑Alba at spns.org.uk

Cox, Richard A V (1991): Brìgh nam Facal, Gairm Publications, Glasgow

Gaelic Orthographic Conventions (2005), Scottish Qualifications Authority. Available on the web at sqa.org.uk

See the collection of guides to place names in Britain:

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