The Gaelic origins of place names in Britain

If you have ever wondered how many of the places in Scotland got their names, this extensive list of terms, along with pronunciation, is here to help.

Background to Scottish Gaelic

Scottish Gaelic today is strongly associated with the Scottish Highlands, especially the Western Isles, and it is easy to forget that it was once the main language of Scotland. About a thousand years ago, when Gaelic was at its height, it could be heard from Berwickshire to Caithness and from Cape Wrath to the Rhinns of Galloway. It has left its mark above all else, in place names, even in areas including much of lowland Scotland, where it has been little spoken since the middle ages. It has left us with thousands of familiar place names containing scores of Gaelic elements, such as Auch‑ from achadh, Auchter‑ from uachdar, Bal‑ from baile, Dun‑ from dùn, Inver‑ from inbhir, Kin‑ from ceann, and Kil‑ usually from cill or coille.

On the Ordnance Survey maps of Scotland you will find two types of names: those written using English spelling and those using Gaelic spelling (orthography). This does not reflect the extent of place names derived from Gaelic, which are to be found throughout most of Scotland, but rather it reflects the areas in which Gaelic was, or had recently been, spoken at the time of the creation of the Ordnance Survey maps in the 19th century. The accompanying glossary is concerned only with those names written in Gaelic orthography. The initial form given in the glossary is the main form of that word in the Gaelic‑Gaelic dictionary Brìgh nam Facal by Richard A V Cox (Gairm Publications, Glasgow 1991).

Structure of place name

Place names are made up of elements, words taken mostly from everyday language used to describe a special feature of a place. Place names arise from the interaction of language and environment.

Place names can consist of a single generic element, usually a noun (Comar NH3331, Corran NS2193). These are often preceded by the Scottish Standard English definite article ’the’, Gaelic an, am, a’, plural na (An Dùnan NM8629, Am Fasgadh NN0169, A’ Charraig NR8467, Na Croitean NM3721). Most place names, however, are made up of more than one element, with a linguistic relationship between the elements. For example, the generic can be qualified by:

  • An adjective, such as mòr ’big’ in Beinn Mhòr NH9928 or dearg ’red’ in Eas Dearg NN6109. Sometimes more than one adjective can qualify the generic element, as in Eilean Glas Mòr NF9069. Such names are also often preceded by the definite article, as in An Ùidh Dhubh NH7395. Note that the definite article is more common in such place names than would appear from Ordnance Survey maps, which frequently do not record it as part of the name.
  • Another common noun in the genitive case, such as sgadan ’herring’ in Geodha Sgadain NG1087, often with the definite article, such as Gleann a’ Chapaill NR7367 (’glen of the horse’), or Loch na h‑Oidhche NG8865 (’loch of the night’).
  • A proper noun, either a personal name, such as Fearchar (Farquhar) in Allt Fhearchair NM5326 or Mairead (Margaret) in Clach Mairead NB1841; OR an existing place name, such as Ìle (Islay) in Caol Ìle or Àirigh nan Eun in Allt Àirigh nan Eun NR8666. Many personal names are those of saints, such as Cill(e) Brìde NR8362, NR3846 (’church of (St) Brigit’ (Kilbride)).

The element qualifying a generic element is called a qualifying or specific element. An element can be generic or specific, depending on how it is used in a name. For example, in Eilean Dubh NC2409 eilean is the generic, dubh is the specific element; whereas in Loch an Eilein NR7980 loch is the generic, an t‑eilean (’the island’) is the specific element.

In Gaelic an adjective usually follows its noun, as in French, for example, Creag Bhàn, Beinn Fhada, except for sean(n) (’old’), which regularly comes before its noun. Other adjectives, especially colour adjectives, can sometimes come after, sometimes before their noun, for example, Coire Glas NO2587 but Glas‑Choire NS1598.

Gaelic spelling and pronunciation

Gaelic spelling is more regular than English spelling, which means that it reflects more accurately the actual sounds of the language. It should be stressed, however, that the sound system of Gaelic is different from Standard English (Received Pronunciation), Scottish Standard English, Scots, or any of the Scottish or English dialects, except for the so‑called West Highland accent, which has been heavily influenced by Gaelic. There are, however, more similarities with Scottish Standard English than with Standard English (Received Pronunciation), so most of the examples below are taken from Scottish Standard English. Modern Gaelic spelling recommendations are embodied in the Gaelic Orthographic Conventions that are available online at sqa.org.uk.

Gaelic uses an alphabet of 18 letters, namely a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, l, m, n, o, p, r, s, t, u. A major feature of the Gaelic spelling system is the concept of broad and slender vowels, which are also referred to as back and front vowels. The broad or back vowels are a, o, u, the slender or front vowels are e, i. The pronunciation of most consonants is different depending on whether they are beside a broad vowel or a slender vowel. For this reason a consonant or group of consonants in the middle of a word must have either a broad vowel on either side or a slender vowel on either side.

All vowels can be long or short, with length being indicated by a grave accent ( ’ ). Formerly acute accents ( ´ ) were used on e and o to indicate not only length (quantity) but also quality, with è pronounced like a long French è (as in Scottish English cortege), and é pronounced like a long French é (as in Scottish English bay); while ò was pronounced like Scottish English awe, and ó like Scottish English owe. However, the acute accent ( ´ ) has been abandoned in modern spelling recommendations so that the grave accent ( ’ ) now indicates length only.

These modern spelling recommendations also explain why forms formerly written with u in unstressed syllables such as calltuinn, camus, tarsuinn, are now written with a, calltainn, camas, tarsainn.

What follows is only a rough approximation of sounds. Remember that the English words given as equivalents are to be pronounced more like Scottish Standard English than Standard English (received pronunciation), unless otherwise stated.

Vowels

Single vowels

  • a: like a in ’hat’, often like u in ’but’; before nn it is like ow in ’cow’
  • à: like a in ’half’
  • e: short closed e like a in ’rate’ and short open e like e in ’fetch’
  • è: long closed e like ay in ’bay’ (formerly é) and long open e like e in ’cortege’ (formerly è)
  • i: like ee as in ’keep’
  • ì: like ee in ’keep’ but longer
  • o: short closed o like oa in ’boat’, and short open o like o in ’lot’
  • ò: long closed o like ’owe’ (formerly ó), and long open o like ’awe’ (formerly ò)
  • u: like oo in ’book’
  • ù: like oo in ’book’, but longer

Vowel groups

Most groups of two or three vowels are pronounced much as would be expected, that is as separate sounds rapidly following one another. However, often one of the vowels is there simply to indicate whether a consonant is broad or slender, for example, in fearann the a following the e indicates that the r is broad, so that ea is pronounced simply as e (as in ’get’). However, note the following:

  • ao: a long sound with no equivalent in English. Try saying Gaelic ù (like oo in ’book’, but longer) without rounding your lips.
  • eu: like ia in ’Maria’ or like ay in ’bay’.

Consonants

This is not a complete or exact description of how each consonant or group of consonants are pronounced. However, those that are most unfamiliar to someone used to the English spelling system are given below, with their approximate English value:

  • bh: like v at the beginning of words, otherwise like w, or silent (that is not heard at all); for example dubh is pronounced approximately as ’doo’.
  • c: like c in ’cat’ or c in ’cue’; when it occurs between two vowels or as the last letter of a word it is preceded by the sound ch in ’loch’
  • ch: like ch in ’loch’.
  • cn: like cr.
  • d slender (that is in contact with one of the slender vowels e, i): like j in ’jam’.
  • dh broad (that is in contact with one of the broad vowels a, o, u): the same sound as Gaelic broad gh, almost like French r in ’rire’. When it is not at the beginning of a word it is often pronounced only very lightly or not at all.
  • dh slender (that is in contact with one of the slender vowels e, i): the same sound as Gaelic slender gh, like y in ’yet’. When it is not at the beginning of a word it is often pronounced only very lightly or not at all.
  • fh: silent, that is not pronounced at all.
  • gh broad (that is in contact with one of the broad vowels a, o, u): the same sound as Gaelic broad dh, almost like French r in ’rire’. When it is not at the beginning of a word it is often pronounced only very lightly or not at all.
  • gh slender (that is in contact with one of the slender vowels e, i): the same sound as Gaelic slender dh, like y in ’yet’. When it is not at the beginning of a word it is often pronounced only very lightly or not at all.
  • l broad (that is in contact with one of the broad vowels a, o, u): like a hollow or dark l, as in ’full’, with the blade (as opposed to the tip) of the tongue touching the teeth.
  • l slender (that is in contact with one of the slender vowels e, i): like lli in ’million’ when it is at the beginning of a word; otherwise like ll in ’silly’.
  • mh: like v at the beginning of words, otherwise like w, or silent (that is not heard at all). It also makes the vowel before it sound very nasal.
  • ph: like f.
  • r slender (that is in contact with one of the slender vowels e, i): can be pronounced like r in Scottish English ’tree’, but in several dialects it is pronounced like th in ’the’.
  • rd and rt: in many Gaelic dialects this is pronounced with a light sh as in ’she’ between the two consonants.
  • s slender (that is in contact with one of the slender vowels e, i): like sh in ’she’.
  • t slender (that is in contact with one of the slender vowels e, i): like ch in ’church’.
  • th: like h in ’he’ at the beginning of words, otherwise silent.

Some grammar

The following is not a full description of Gaelic grammar. However, in order to use the Elements Index it is important to know a little about these things. A full description can be found in any book for Gaelic learners, sources for which are given in the further information section.

Certain regular changes take place in Gaelic in nouns, adjectives and the definite article, depending on such grammatical features as gender (masculine or feminine), number (singular or plural), and case (nominative, genitive, dative). All Gaelic nouns are either masculine or feminine, and it will become clear that it is important to know what gender a noun belongs to. Some nouns, however, are used in masculine and feminine forms depending on local usage. They are marked nmf in the glossary. The genitive case indicates possession, as indicated in English by ’of the’.

Definite article

'The' is the only form of the definite article in English. However, as with most other European languages, Gaelic has several forms, depending on number, gender and case, as well as on the initial letter or letters of the following noun.

Singular

  • a’: for example, before a feminine noun in the nominative case beginning with b(h), c(h), g(h), m(h), p(h), as in A’ Bheinn NM8403, A’ Chruach NM9021, A’ Phàirc Loisgte NN4856; or before a masculine noun in the genitive case beginning with b(h), c(h), g(h), m(h), p(h), as in Sròn a’ Bhàird NR7662, ’nose of the poet’, containing the genitive of am bàrd ’the poet’, Allt a’ Choire Dhuibh NN2564, ’burn of the black corrie’, containing the genitive of an coire dubh ’the black corrie’. This form of the definite article always causes lenition (see below).
  • am: before a masculine noun in the nominative case beginning with b, f, m, p, as in Am Fasgadh NN0169, Am Meall NR7665.
  • an: for example, before a masculine noun in the nominative case beginning with any consonant except b, f, m, p, as in An Cnap NS0146, or before a feminine noun in the nominative case beginning with a vowel or f(h), as in An Àird NG5335, An Fhang NR6552.
  • an t‑: for example, before a masculine noun in the nominative beginning with a vowel, as in An t‑Inbhir NN4048; before a masculine noun in the genitive beginning with s + vowel, l, n, or r, as in Cnoc an t‑Sagairt NR8368, ’hill of the priest’, containing the genitive of an sagart ’the priest’, Meall an t‑Sluic NN5152, containing the genitive of an sloc ’the hollow’; or before a feminine noun in the nominative beginning with s + vowel, l, n, or r, as in An t‑Sàil Bheag NG8761, An t‑Sròn NL9342. Note that in all cases following an t‑ the initial s is silent, that is it is not pronounced.
  • na: before a feminine noun in the genitive beginning with a consonant, as in Loch na Bèiste NR7654, Port na Cille NR6444.
  • na h‑: before a feminine noun in the genitive beginning with a vowel, as in Gob na h‑Àirde Mòire NB0117, containing the genitive of An Àird Mhòr ’the big headland’.

The forms of the definite article with singular nouns can be summarised in this table:

Singular Initial letter of following noun
b, m, p c, g d, l, n, r, t f s vowel
masculine
nom am an an am an an t‑
gen a’ a’ an an an t‑ an
feminine nom a’ a’ an an an an
gen na na na na t‑ na na h‑


Plural

  • na: before masculine and feminine nouns in the nominative beginning with a consonant, as in Na Cnuic Liatha NC1810, plural of an cnoc liath ’the grey hill’ (cnoc is masculine), Na Croitean NM3721, plural of a’ chroit ’the croft’ (croit is feminine).
  • na h‑: before masculine and feminine nouns in the nominative beginning with a vowel, as in Na h‑Easan NC4300, plural of an t‑eas ’the waterfall’ (eas is masculine) or Na h‑Ìnnsean NC2522, plural of an innis (innis is feminine).
  • nam: before masculine and feminine nouns in the genitive beginning with b, f, m, p, as in Toll nam Broc NR8082, Creag nam Fitheach NR7876.
  • nan: before masculine and feminine nouns in the genitive beginning with any letter except b, f, m, p, as in Druim nan Toll NN7094.

The forms of the definite article with plural nouns can be summarised in this table:

Plural Initial letter of following noun
b, f, m, p other consonants vowel
Masculine or feminine
nom na
na
na
gen nam
nan h‑ nan

Lenition

Gaelic is a Celtic language and, as in other Celtic languages such as Irish and Welsh, the consonants at the beginning of words can change according to gender, number and case. In Gaelic this is called lenition, meaning literally ’softening’, and it is usually signalled by putting the letter h after the lenited or softened consonant.

The initial consonants that are affected by lenition by the addition of an h are b, c, d, f, g, m, p, s, t. The consonants l, n, r can also be affected by lenition, but this is not expressed in the spelling.

These are some of the main circumstances in which lenition occurs:

  • in a feminine singular noun following the definite article, as in A’ Bheinn NM8403, An Fhang NR6552;
  • in an adjective following a feminine singular noun, as in Creag Bhreac NM8400 or Beinn Mhòr NH9928;
  • in the genitive of a masculine singular noun following the definite article a’, as in Eilean a’ Bhuic NB5452 (genitive of boc);
  • in the adjective qualifying a masculine genitive singular noun, as in Rubha a’ Phuirt Mhòir NR2457 (genitive of port mòr);
  • in the genitive singular of masculine personal names, as in Geodha Chaluim MhicMhuirich NA0701 (’the ravine of Calum MacVurich or Malcolm Currie’) or Sgùrr Thormaid NG4422 (’Tormad’s or Norman’s peak’); and
  • in a noun following an adjective, regardless of the noun’s gender, as in Glas‑Choire NS1598.

Glossary

Place names are made up of components which are referred to as elements. These elements are simply the words people used to describe a place or their response to their environment. A more complete background to Scottish Gaelic in place names, pronunciation and spelling can be found preceding Introduction.

This is a glossary of the elements from Scottish Gaelic most frequently found in the place names of Britain. The meaning given is that which occurs in place names. Examples (with grid references) are given for each element. The forms of names given in these examples are as they currently appear on Ordnance Survey maps, which in some cases do not conform to current Gaelic conventions.

There are usually three forms given for each noun: the first form is the basic form, called the nominative singular; the second form is the genitive singular; while the third form is the plural.

Abbreviations
adj = adjective
adv = adverb
f = feminine
g = genitive
m = masculine
nf = noun feminine
nm = noun masculine
nmf = noun sometimes used in masculine and in feminine
num = number
pl = plural
pr = preposition

Element

Meaning

Examples

a’

form of definite article ’the’

abhainn nf aibhne g aibhnichean pl

river

Abhainn a’ Bhàigh NB2502, Abhainn Bheag NC8446

acairseid

alternative form of acarsaid

Acairseid an Rubha NG5600

acarsaid nf acarsaide g acarsaidean pl

anchorage, harbour

Acarsaid an Dùin NM0847, AcarsaidNM5872

ach

shortened form of achadh

Ach nan Con NN1370, Ach a’ Chorrain NC3761

achadh nm achaidh g achaidhean pl

field, agricultural holdingDroma

Achadh nan Each NM5245, Achadh an NM4349

achlais nf achlaise g achlaisean pl

armpit, oxter

Allt na h‑Achlaise NH2982, An Achlais NH2982

agh nm aighe g aighean pl

young cow, heifer

Bad nan Aighean NC1325, Breac nan Aighean NM0448

aibhne, aibhnichean

see abhainn

Port Bun Aibhne NR2068

aifrean nmf aifrinn(e) g

church‑land

Allt an Aifrinn NH4845, Port na h‑Aifrinne NM6980

aighe, aighean

see agh

Rubha nan Aighean NM6962

àil

see àl

Loch an Àil NF7101

àileach adj

airy, windy, breezy

Sròn Àileach NN6715

àilean nm àilein g àilein pl

green, enclosure, meadow

Càrn an Àilean NH8221, Boch‑àilean ND1020

airbhe nf

dividing wall, fence

Sgeirean nan Airbhe NC1548, Allt na h‑Airbhe NH2361

àird nf àirde g àirdean pl

height, promontory

Cruach Àirde NR7363, Rubha na h‑Àirde Bige NC2049

àirigh nf àirighe g àirighean, àirichean pl

shieling

Sean‑Àirigh NC9458, Àirigh a’ Bhealaich NB5358

aiseag nm aiseig g aiseagan pl

ferry

Eilean an Aiseig NF8646, Gob an Aiseig NB2616

aisir nf aisre g aisrean pl

passage, pass, path

Loch Aisir NC1960, Aisir a’ Chaorainn NN1843

aisridh nf

hill, path

Aisridh Màiri Bhàn NN1868, Allt Aisridh NG5721

aiteann nm aitinn g

juniper

Allt an Aitinn NO2082, Caochan Aitinn NJ1310

àl nm àil g

rock, stone

Loch an Àil NF7101

allt nm uillt g uillt pl

burn, stream

Allt a’ Bhacain NJ0330, Bad an Uillt ND2044

alltan nm alltain g alltain pl

small burn, rivulet

Coire Chrion‑alltain NN8495, Alltain Ruadh NG9865

am

form of definite article ’the’

amar nm amair g amaran, amraichean pl

trough, channel, ditch

Allt an Amair NJ1343, Beinn an Amair NC3565

amhach nf amhaiche g amhaichean pl

neck

Loch nan Amhaichean NH4176

a‑muigh adv

outer

Hèisgeir A‑Muigh NL5786

an, an t‑

forms of definite article ’the’

annaid nf annaid(e) g

early or mother‑church, land belonging to such a church

Tòrr na h‑Annaid NM3621

aodann nm aodainn g aodainnean pl

face

Aodann Mhòr NC4069, Aodann Raineach NN0502

aoidh nf aoidhe g aoidhean pl

neck of land, slow moving water

Eilean Aoidhe NR9367, Caisteal Aoidhe NR9071

aoineadh nm aoinidh g

steep brae with rocks, morraine

Fionn Aoineadh NM4026, Aoineadh Beag NM6550

aon, aona num

one, on its own, same

Rubha na h‑Aona Cloich NA9726

aonach nm aonaich g aonaichean pl

steep height, plateau, hill

An Dubh‑aonach NM6474, Aonach Bàn NN7454

arbhar nm arbhair g

corn

Camas an Arbhair NG7381, Cnoc an

Arbhair ND0556

àrd nmf àird g àrdan pl

non‑standard form of àird

Druim an Àird NC7764, Àrd Caol NB2301

àrd adj

high

Sròn Àrd NB1112, Tom Àrd NB2630

ari

anglicised form of àirigh

Arinagour NM2257, Arinabea NN2931

a‑staigh adv

inner

Hèisgeir A‑Staigh NL5886

àth nm àtha g àthan pl

ford

Eilean an Àtha NM7407, Loch an Àth Ruaidh NB0518

athair nm athar g athraichean pl

father

Caolas Mhic an Athar NR3686

auch, auchen

anglicised forms of achadh

Auchencloy NX0754, Aucheninch NS2514

auchter

anglicised form of uachdar

Auchterarder NN9412, Auchtertyre NJ1858

ault

anglicised form of allt

Ault na Skiah NH6742, Aultbeg NJ2733

see bò

Lochan na Bà Glaise NM7188, Rubha na Bà NC2048

bac nm baca, baic g bacan pl

pit, hollow, bog, peat bank

Am Bac Dubh NH2351, Bràigh Bac NN3088

bacach adj

hilly, rugged

Cnoc Bacach NC4551, Loch Bacach NC4551

bachall nm bachaill g bachallan pl

crozier, staff (of a cleric)

Coire a’ Bhachaill NN0630

bad nm baid g badan pl

tuft, grove, thicket

Bad an Òir NN5186, Càrn Bad an Daimh NH7628

bàgh nm bàigh g bàghan, bàghannan pl

bay

Bàgh a Tuath NB5532, Bàgh a’ Ghlinne NG1898

baic

see bac

Allt Bhaic NN8464

baid

see bad

Allt a’ Bhaid Leathain NC6320

bàigh

see bàgh

Tràigh Bad na Bàighe NC2247

baile nm bailtean pl

farm, hamlet, homestead

Baile na Cille NC0834, Baile Geamhraidh NM6255

bàird

see bàrd

Loch a’ Bhàird NB3001

bal

anglicised form of baile

Balbeg ND1553, Balcairn NJ7828

balla

anglicised form of baile

Ballabeg NJ4103, Ballachulish NN0757

bally

anglicised form of baile

Ballycoach NS3611, Ballygowan NR8197

bàn adj

fair, white, pale, light in colour

Eas Bàn NH0977, Eilean Bàn NF8046

bane

anglicised form of bàn

Craigbane NX6797, Tombane NN9552

bànrigh nf bànrighe g bànrighean pl

queen

Sròn na Bàn‑righ NN8788, Clach na Bàn‑righ NM1858

bàrd nm bàird g bàird pl

bard, poet, dyke, fence, park

Eilean a’ Bhàird NG2704, Loch a’ Bhàird NB3001

barpa nm barpannan pl

(chambered) cairn, heap of stones

Barpa Langass NF8365, Dùn Bharpa NF6701

bàrr nm barra g barran pl

top, summit, height, hill

Am Bàrr NM9728, Allt Bàrr Mhìn NN2532

bàta nm bàtaichean pl

boat, barge

Sloc a’ Bhàta NF7100, Camas a’ Bhàta NG7371

bàthaich (also in f form bàthach, bàthcha) nm bàthaich g bàthaichean pl

byre, cow shed

Bàthaich Fionndag NH9907, Mòine na Bàthaich NB4055

beag adj bhig (f), bige (m) g beaga pl

little

Monadh Beag NN1585, Poll Beag NH8437

bealach nm bealaich g bealaich pl

pass, gorge of a mountain, glen, gap

Am Bealach NC8959, Bealach a’ Chait NM9283

bealaidh nm

broom (plant)

Càrn a’ Bhealaidh NO3293, Creag a’ Bhealaidh NH3439

bean nf mnà, mnatha g mnathan pl

wife, woman

Druim na Mnà NB2332, Bean an Taighe NM6375

beanntan

see beinn

beàrn nf bèirn, beàirn g beàrnan pl

gap, crevice

Tobar Bun na Bèirn NR1653

beathrach, beathraichean

see beithir

Beinn nam Beathrach NM7557

beg

anglicised form of beag

CarnbegNR4167, Corranbeg NM8004

beinn nf beinne g beanntan pl

mountain, peak

Beinn a’ Tuath NB0923, Beinn a’ Ghrianain NC2835

bèirn

see beàrn

Tobar Bun na Bèirn NR1653

bèist nf bèiste g bèistean pl

beast, monster

Cnoc na Bèiste NC5065, Clach na Bèiste NR9061

beithe nf beithe g

birch

Camas Beithe NG8388, Cnoc Beithe NN8626

beithir nm beathrach g beathraichean, beithrichean pl

serpent, wild beast

Sròn a’ Bheathrach NR8266, Cleite na Beathrach NB3013

ben

anglicised form of beinn

Ben TirranNO3674, Ben Stack NC2742

beul nm beòil g beòil pl

mouth, opening

Beul a’ Mhàim NN0674, Beul an Lochain NC9963

beum nm beuma g beuman, beumannan pl

stream, torrent, gap

bh‑

A word starting bh is often a lenited form of a word starting b

bhig

see beag

Lùb Gairt Bhig NN3044

bho dheas adj

southern

Dail bho Dheas NB4861

bho thuath adj

northern

Dail bho Thuath NB4961

biast nf bèiste g biastan pl

alternative form of bèist

Toll nam BiastNG8761, Biastan Thuilm NB4430

bidean nm bidein g bideanan pl

pinnacle, sharp, pointed hill

Am Bidean NG3441, Bidean Dubh NG9520

bige

see beag

Loch Cul Làimhe Bige NB1722

bile nf bilean pl

lip, edge, margin

Beinn na Bile NF9571, Bile Buidhe NJ0711

binnean nm binnein g binnein pl

high conical hill

An Binnean Crom NR3790, Binnein NN3409

biolar nf biolair g

watercress

Biolaire NB4641, Fuaran nam Biolaire NN5139

biorach adj

sharp‑pointed

Rubha Biorach NM7368, Meall Biorach NN0237

bioran nm biorain g biorain pl

stick

Leac nam Bioran NM9472, Bioran Beag NN6922

blair

anglicised form of blàr

Drumblair NX2850, Dalblair NS6419

blàr nm blàir g blàran pl

cleared space

Blàr an Lochain NN2088

nm g pl (bò g pl

cow

Lochan na Bà Glaise NM7188, Rubha na Bà NC2048

boc nm buic g buic pl

buck, he‑goat

Sgeir nam Boc NC0615, Allt a’ Bhuic ND0535

bodach nm bodaich g bodaich pl

old man, spectre

Sloc nam Bodach NR4298, Allt nam Bodach NL6490

bodha nm bodhachan pl

sunken rock in sea, rock over which waves break

Bodha Ruadh NG4475

bogach nm bogaich g bogaichean pl

marsh, bog

Bogach NF7102, Bogach nan Sgadan NF8068

bogha nm boghachan pl

alternative form of bodha

Bogha Beag NG7326, Bogha Crom NM4434

boglach nf boglaich g boglaichean pl

marsh, bog

Boglach nan Tarbh NR4073, Boglach Mhòr NM5623

bonn nm buinn g buinn, bonnan pl

heel, sole, foundation, bottom

Allt Bhuinne NN6348

borrach nm borraich g

rough hill grass

Borrach NS0226

bota nm botaichean pl

river bank, mound

Bot na Gile NB4848, Botan Ruairidh NB3745

both nm botha g bothan pl

cottage, hut

Both Ruadh NB0621, Allt nam Bothan NN3709

bradan nm bradain g bradain pl

salmon

Loch nam Bradan NB3525, Allt Teanga Bradan NG5122

bràigh nm bràighe, bràghad g bràigheachan pl

upper part, upland country

Allt a’ Chas Bràighe NB0021, Allt Bràigh Bac NN3188

bràthair nm bràthar g bràithrean pl (also bràthairean)

brother, rock (especially pairs of rocks)

Leac nam Bràthairean NM7230, Na Bràthairean NL9538

breac adj

speckled, spotted

Caisteal Breac NH5868, Càrn Breac NH0452

breac nm bric g bric pl

trout

Eilean nam Breac NM7091, Loch nam Breac NC6958

breck

anglicised form of breac

Carrabreck HU3680, Clachbreck NR7675

breug nf brèige g breugan pl

lie, falsehood

Rubha na Brèige NC0519

breun adj

foul, stinking, filthy

Breun Loch NH5568, Am Breun Chamas NN1075

bric

see breac

Loch na Bric NR8089

broc nm bruic g bruic pl

badger

Rubha nam Broc NM7769, Sròn nam Broc NJ1805

brochan nm brochain g brochain pl

porridge, gruel

Coille Bhrochain NN9061, Coire Bhrochain NN9599

bròg nf bròige g brògan pl

boot

Stob na Bròige NN1952

bruach nf bruaich g bruaichean pl

bank, brink

Bruach an Fhraoich NC3940, Bruach an Iaruinn NR9023

bruic

see broc

Sròn na Bruic NR9593

bruthach nmf bruthaich g bruthaichean pl

brae, ascent

Ruadh‑bruthach NF6163, Bruthach Breac NR2945

buachaill nm buachaille g buachaillean pl

cow‑herd, shepherd

Tom nam Buachaillean NN0405, Am Buachaille NN7494

buaile nf buailtean pl

cattle‑fold

Buaile Bhuidhe NA9925, Buaile Dhubh NG8790

buic

see boc

Allt a’ Bhuic ND0535, Bàgh Buic NR9170

buidhe adj

yellow

Allt Coire Buidhe NC7144, Buidheanach Burn NN9594

buin

see bun

buinn

see bonn

Allt Bhuinne NN6348

bùirich nmf

roaring, bellowing (especially of deer)

Allt a’ Bhùirich NC2401, Coire Bhùirich NN5671

bùirn

see bùrn

bun nm buin, buna g buin, bunan pl

base, foot, foundation

Bun a’ Ghlinne NB5244, Bun an Uillt NF8219

bùrn nm bùirn g

water, not applied to salt water

Creag Àrd a’ Bhùirn NH5275, Tobar Bhùirn ND2034

bùth nm bùtha g bùthan, bùithean pl

booth, hut, cottage

Camas nam Bùth NC1444, Cnoc nam Bùth NH5674

cabar nm cabair g cabair pl

antler, horn, pole

Glac nan Cabar NH3342, An Cabar NH4466

cabhsair nm cabhsair g cabhsairean pl

causeway

An Cabhsair NH7516, Cabhsair ND1648

cachaileith nf cachaileithe g cachaileithean pl

field gate, hurdle

Cachaileith Liath NN6916, Allt na Cachaileith NN9561

cadha nm cadhan pl

narrow pass, narrow ravine

An Cadha NC2350, Cadha Bàn NH0330

caibeal nm caibeil g caibealan pl

chapel

Cnoc a’ Chaibeil NR8642, Coire a’ Chaibeil NO0447

caigeann nm caiginn g caigeannan pl

rough mountain pass, pair, couple, brace

Caigeann Mòr NR6799

cailleach nf cailliche g cailleachan pl

old woman, rock

Cailleach Croigary NB3525, Cnoc nan Cailleach NN0279

càir

see càr

càirn

see càrn

Lochan Càirn Deirg NN0749

caime nf caimean pl

circle, curve, loop

Coire na Caime NG9157, Loch na Caime NR5383

caipleach nf caiplich g

place of horses

Loch na Caiplich NF9055, Caiplich NH5437

cairidh nf cairidhean pl

weir, fish‑pound

Cnoc na Cairidh NC2232, Eilean na Cairidh NF8363

càise nm càisean pl

cheese

Cnoc a’ Chàise NC1743, Creag Chàise NB1909

caise nf

steepness, stream of water

Loch Caise ND0246, Coire na Caise NM7025

caiseal nm caiseil g caisealan pl

alternative form of caisteal

Tom Chaiseil NN7857, Craigcaiseal NS4499

caisteal nm caisteil g caistealan pl

stone wall, stone fort, castle

Na Caistealan NM6856, Allt a’ Chaisteil NC7257

cait

see cat

Lochan a’ Chait NN3962

cala nm cala g calaidhean pl

alternative form of caladh

Cala na Creige NM9680

caladh nm calaidh g calaidhean pl

harbour, port, shore, ferry, bay

Caladh NH5754, Tom Caladh nam Freum NM9977

calaman

alternative form of calman

Allt nan Calaman NR9734

call nm calla g

the act of dropping, loss, damage

Bad a’ Challa NG7971, Caochan a’ Challa NH5533

calltainn nm calltainn(e) g

hazel

Creag a’ Challtainne NN9347, Sgiath Challtainne NN4108

calman nm calmain g

dove

Meall nan Calman NH2806, Uamh nan Calman NM8029

cam adj

crooked

Allt Cam NB2209, Cam Chreag NN5838

camas nm camais g

channel, bay, harbour

Camas a’ Bhàta NG7371, An Camas Aiseig NN0164

cambus

anglicised form of camas

Cambusbeg NN6605, Cambuscairn NX8585

canach nmf canaich g

cotton grass, bog cotton

Lochan na Canaich NM6855, Càrn na Canaich NH0982

caochan nm caochain g caochanan pl

streamlet

Ruigh Caochan Dubh NN9981, Allt Caochan NG9127

caol adj

narrow

Allt Caol NC5258, Àrd Caol NB2301

caolas nm caolais g caolais pl

narrow, strait

Caolas a Deas NB3609, Caolas an Eilein NA9821

caora nf caorach g caoraich, caoirich pl

sheep

Càrn nan Caorach NH1685, Cnoc nan Caorach NB4441

caorann nf caorainn g

rowan tree, mountain ash

Cnoc nan Caorann NR9296, Creag nan Caorann NN3020

capall nm capaill g capaill pl

horse, mare

Stuchdan Capaill NS0478, Uamh Capaill NS0952

càr nm càir g càraichean pl

alternative form of càthar

Càr Choille NC2408, Càr an Daimh NM6483

carach adj

winding

Cnoc Carach NM6547, Eilean Carach NG7614

càrn nm càirn, cùirn g càirn, cùirn pl

heap of stones

Càrn a’ Mhàim NN9995, Càrn a’ Bhainne NH4436

càrnach nm càrnaich g

stony ground, quarry

Càrnach NH0196, Càrnach Biorach NN2000

carraig nf carraige g carraigean pl

rock, fishing rock, promontory, cliff

Na Carraigean NM1556, Sròn na Carraige NS0077

carrick

anglicised form of carraig

Carrick NR9087, Carrickcorie NX1430

cas adj

steep

Allt Cas Leac NN1445, Càrn Cas nan Gabhar NH5280

cat nm cait g cait pl

cat

Allt a’ Chait ND2146, Creag a’ Chait NH5498

cath nm catha g cathan, cathannan pl

battle

Achadh a’ Chatha NH7704, Fèith a’ Chatha NM8683

cathair nf cathrach g cathraichean pl

seat, bench, fortified

place

Cathair Mhic Dhiarmaid NM5169, Càrn na Cathrach NH3326

càthar nm càthair g

mossy soft boggy ground

Càthar an Fhèidh NN4076, Càthar na Seilge NN1768

cathrach, cathraichean

see cathair

Loch na Cathrach Duibhe NG8990

ceann nm cinn g cinn pl

head, headland, point, top

Ceann a’ Bhàigh NG2196, Ceann Buidhe NR9397

ceap nm cip g ceapan, ceapannan pl

block

Ceap Liath NM6625, Allt nan Ceap NH2747

ceapach nmf ceapaich g ceapaich pl

tillage plot

Ceapach NN5813, A’ Cheapach NH1785

cearc nf circe g cearcan pl

hen

Bad na Circe NH7277, Rubha nan Cearc NM3125

cearcall nm cearcaill g cearcaill, cearcallan pl

circle, hoop

An Cearcall NL5987, Cearcall Dubh NG8541

ceàrd nm ceàird g ceàrdan pl

craftsman, smith

Bruach nan Ceàrd NR7786, Cnoc nan Ceàrd NH4031

ceàrdach nf ceàrdaich g ceàrdaichean pl

smithy, forge

Càrn na Ceàrdaich NC3809, Coille na Ceàrdaich NH3629

ceathach nm ceathaich g ceathaich pl

mist

Coire Cheathaich ND0329, Allt Cheathaich NN4034

ceathramh nm ceathraimh g ceathramhan pl

quarter

Cnoc a’ Cheathraimh NC7608, Meall a’ Cheathraimh NN5779

ch‑

A word starting ch is often a lenited form of a word starting c

cìche

see cìoch

Allt na Cìche NH1216

cill nf cille g cillean, cilltean pl

church, burial place

Cille Maire NG5517, Cnoc na Cille NG1951

cinn

see ceann

Sgeir Mhaola Cinn NR8772

cìoch nf cìche g cìochan pl

nipple, pap

Cìoch Mhòr NH4486, Coire na Cìche NH4784

cip

see ceap

circe

see cearc

Bealach Coire na Circe NG4427

cìrean nm cìrein g cìreanan pl

comb, honey‑comb, sheep

Cìrean Geardail NC0034, An Cìrean NC0333

ciste nf

grave, chest

Ciste Mearad NJ0104, Ciste Dhubh NH0616

clach nf cloiche g clachan pl

stone

Clach na Sròine NC2533, Clach an Rìgh NC6839

clachan nm clachain g

village

Clachan Àrd NB2246, Clachan a’ Ghobha NB5141

cladach nm cladaich g cladaichean pl

shore, beach, coast

Cladach a’ Ghlinne NG5116, Cladach Mòr NF7173

claddach

anglicised form of cladach

Garry‑claddach NF8161, Claddach NR1653

cladh nm claidh, cladha g cladhan pl

burial‑ground, mound, dyke

Cladh nan Sasunnach NH0066, Cladh Mhicheil NB5447

claidheamh nm claidheimh g claidhnean pl

sword

Sgùrr a’ Chlaidheimh NG9503, Beinn a’ Chlaidheimh NH0577

claigeann nm claiginn g claignean pl

skull, head

Claigeann Mòr NF0899

claigionn

non‑standard form of claigeann

An Claigionn NH5278, Claigionn na Sròine NN1281

clàir

see clàr

Loch a’ Chlàir NL9844

clais nf claise g claisean pl

narrow valley or hollow, ditch

Clais Daimh NN8974, Clais Odhar NO0374

clamhan nm clamhain g clamhain pl

buzzard, kite

Creag a’ Chlamhain NH3294, Bad a’ Chlamhain ND1849

claon adj

sloping, awry

Claonairigh NN0504, Claon Leitir NH1100

clàr nm clàir g clàran pl

flat stretch of ground, any smooth surface

Clàr Beag NB1115, Doire nan Clàr NH2905

clèireach nm clèirich g clèirich pl

cleric

Allt a’ Chlèirich NH0022, Cruach Clèirich

NR9097

cleit, cleite nf cleite g cleitean, cleiteachan pl

rock, cliff

Cleit Ruadh ND1730, Cleite Loisgte NF9876

cloiche

see clach

Fas na Cloiche NN0248

cluain nf cluaine g cluaintean, cluainean pl

meadow, lawn

Allt Cluain‑àirighe NG7505, Na Cluainean NN1988

cnàmh nm cnàimh g cnàmhan pl

bone

Coire nan Cnàmh NG9705, Loch nan Cnàmh NB4027

cnap nm cnaip g cnapan pl

hillock, lump, little hill

An Cnap NG7526, Cnapan Garbh NN9886

cnoc nm cnuic g cnuic pl

round hill, hillock, knoll

Cnoc an Tairbh NB5348, Cnoc Drochaid NM6892

còig num

five

Innean Còig Cailleichean NR5912

coileach nm coilich g coilich pl

cock

Cnoc nan Coileach NR6999, An Coileach NG0892

coille nf coilltean pl

wood, forest, grove

Coille NR2468, Sròn Dà Choille NN2435

coin

see cù

Allt Toll a’ Choin NH1443

coinean nm coinein g coineanan pl

rabbiti

Loch nan Coinean NC6746, Eilean nan Coinean NR7796

còinneach nf còinnich g

moss

Còinneach Mhòr NG9460

coirce nm

oats

Druim a’ Choirce NM4788, Achadh a’ Choirce NC6805

coire nm coireachan pl

corrie, hollow on the side of a hill or between hills (literally ’cauldron’)

Coire Glas NR9047, Allt Choire Odhair NJ0526

còis

see còs

Allt a’ Chòis NG7838

comar nm comair g comaran pl

confluence of streams

Abhainn a’ Chomair NH1557, Allt a’ Chomair NH2157

con

see cù

Coire nan Con NH4386, Meall nan Con NC5829

conasg nm conaisg g

gorse

An Conasg NH4579, Cnoc a’ Chonaisg NH3856

conasgach adj

covered in gorse

Creagan Conasgach NR9672, Bealach Conasgach NN5402

còrr nm

horn, corner, end

Còrr Bhàn NR6010, Còrr Bheinn NM9708

corr, corra adj

pointed

Corra‑Bheinn NM5732

corra nf

heron, crane

Rubha nan Corra NM7468, Sgeir Poll nan Corra NM7107

corrach adj

steep, eminent, lofty

Corrach Bheinn NM9321, Caisteal Corrach NN6412

corran nm corrain g corrain pl

sickle, headland

An Corran NH5972, Corran Bàn NF7010

còs nm còis g còsan pl

nook

Eas a’ Chòis NN1436, Sgòrr a’ Chòise NN0855

crainn

see crann

Àird a’ Chrainn NM4118

craisg

see crasg

Beinn a’ Chraisg NC2359

crann nm crainn, croinn g crainn, croinn pl

tree, mast, plough

Creag a’ Chroinn NL6597, Sloc a’ Chroinn NR4098

crannag nf crannaig g crannagan pl

artificial island

Eas a’ Chrannaig NS0225, Crannag NF7004

craobh nf craoibhe g craobhan pl

tree

Leac nan Craobh NG5720, Bac na Craoibhe NJ1013

craobhach adj

covered in wood

Creag Chraobhach NC6227

crasg nf craisg g crasgan pl

crossing

An Crasg NH0890, Cnoc na Craisg NH6156

creachann nm creachainn g creachannan pl

bare, wind‑swept summit

Sgeir nan Creachann NF8854

creag nf creige g creagan pl

crag, rock, cliff

Creag Chàise NB1909, Coire na Creige NC1721

creagach adj

rocky

Toll Creagach NH1513, Cnoc Creagach NH4460

creamh nm creamha g

wild garlic, gentian, leek

Allt Creamha NN4737, Creag Creamha NR7935

creige

see creag

Carn na Creige NG8832

crìoch nf crìche g crìochan pl

boundary

Creag na Crìche NC9151, Allt na Crìche NC9150

critheann nm crithinn g

aspen tree

Allt Crithinn NC7522, Lùb Craobh Crithinn NN3947

crò nm crotha, crothadh g cròitean pl

sheep pen, fold, circle

Camas na Cròtha NB0320, Cnoc na Cròtha NB3529

cròcach adj

branched, antlered

Allt Cròcach NH5388, Loch Cròcach NC6459

crodh nm cruidh g

cattle

Meall a’ Chruidh NB0117, Port a’ Chruidh NR9258

croich nf croiche g croichean pl

gallows

Rubha na Croiche NN0062, Càrn na Croiche NH6572

croinn

see crann

Rubha Croinn NM7838

crois nf croise g croisean pl

cross

An Crois‑eilean NF7964, Allt na Croise NM9679

croit nf croite g croitean pl

croft, hump

Càrn na Croite NH8431, Croit Darach NR5370

cròitean

see crò

crom adj

crooked

Crom Allt NC2406, Crom Leitir NJ2610

crotha, crothadh

see crò

Allt Gleann Crotha NN5020

cruach nf cruaiche g cruachan pl

heap, stack, bold hill

Cruach NN3316, Cruach a’ Chaise NS1891

crùbach nm crùbaich g

lame man

Cnoc a’ Chrùbaich Mhòir NC8716

cruidh

see crodh

Meall Cruidh NN1241

crùn nm crùin g crùintean pl

crown

Cnoc Crùn na Maoil NR4148, Crùn a’ Bhràghad NG2856

nm coin g coin, con (g) pl

dog

Coire nan Con NH4386, Meall nan Con NC5829

cuach nf cuaich g cuachan pl

hollow of a hill, cockle

Allt a’ Chuaich NJ1033, Meall Chuaich NN7187

cuan nm cuain g cuantan pl

sea, ocean, large lake

Cuan Mòr NM4157, Sgeir a’ Chuain NG2158

cuidhe nf cuidhe g

fold, pen, enclosure

Cuidhe Chrom NN4324, Lochan na Cuidhe NH2831

cùil nf cùile g cùiltean pl

nook, corner, niche

Cùil a’ Mhadaidh ND0448, Cùil a’ Mhuic NM8091

cùil

see cùl

Rubha Cùil NM7308

cuilc nf cuilce g cuilcean pl

reed

Glac nan Cuilc NG8090, Leac na Cuilce NG7977

cuileann nm cuilinn g

holly

Torran Cuilinn NH0155, Rubha Cuilinn NM9105

cùiltean

see cùl and cùil

Na Cùiltean NR5464

cuing nf cuinge g cuingean pl

narrow strait

Creag na Cuinge ND0819, Cuing‑sgeir NR3968

cùirn see

càrn

Cùirn Dearga NH0091

cuithe nf cuitheachan pl

pit, narrow glen, deep moist place, patch of snow

Cuithe Lachlainn NF7974, Loch na Cuith Moire NF7323


cùl nm cùil g cùiltean pl

back

Port Cùl a’ Mhill NM3924, Spot a’ Chùil ND0526

cumha(i)ng nm cumhaing g

narrow place, defile

Cumhang a’ Ghlinne NG8640, Allt a’ Chumhaing NG8039

cumhang adj

narrow

Allt Cumhang NN3533, Bealach Cumhang NG5045

cumhann adj

alternative form of cumhang

Feadan Cumhann NM6523, Rubha Cumhann NM7068

cumhann nm cumhainn g

alternative form of cumha(i)ng

Allt a’ Chumhainn NN1962, Loch a’ Chumhainn NM4152

curach nf curaich g curaichean pl

marsh, fen, bog

Gleann Curachain NH4308, Port na Curaich NM2621

dà num

two

Meall Dà Chloich NN7962

dabhach nf dabhaich g dabhcha, dabhaichean pl

vat, large tub; land division, davoch (ancient Scottish land measurement)

Loch an DabhaichNN7296, Cnoc Dabhaich NC0723

dail nf dalach g dailean pl

haugh, level field by a river

Dail an Eais NM9964, Dail an Òir NN1625

dal

anglicised form of dail

Dal MoreNH6568, Dalbreck NC7415

damh nm daimh g daimh pl

ox, stag

Creag an Daimh NC9058, Dùn Daimh NN4863

daoine

see duine

Lochan nan Daoine NM4443

darach nm daraich g

oak

Tòrr an Daraich NN0376, Coire Daraich NG4529

darroch

anglicised form of darach

Knockdarroch NN9655, Tordarroch NH6733

dearcag nf dearcaig g dearcagan pl

berry

Tòrr nan Dearcag ND0856, Allt Dearcaige NJ1113

dearg adj

red

Allt Dearg NH6580, Bealach Dearg NH2243

deas adj

south

Croic a Deas NF7129, Gleann Deas NR2169

derry

anglicised form of doire

Glen Derry NO0396, Loch Derry NX2573

dh‑

A word starting dh is often a lenited form of a word starting d

dìg nf dìge g dìgean pl

ditch, wall of loose stones

Allt na Dìge Moire NC3144, Dìg Ghorm NR8764

dìollaid nf dìollaide g dìollaidean pl

saddle

An Dìollaid NO0797, Bealach na Dìollaide NS2297

dìseart nm

hermit’s retreat

Port an Dìseart NM2924, Cladh an Dìseart NM2824

dìthreabh nf dìthreibh g dìthreabhan pl

wilderness, the less cultivated parts of a district

Loch Dìthreabh na Cuileige NG7741

dòbhran nm dòbhrain g dòbhrain pl

otter

Cnap an Dòbhrain NJ0806, Tòrr an Dòbhrain NR3343

doire nmf doirean, doireachan pl

grove, thicket

Sròn Doire NR8378, Toll Doire NM5641

dòirlinn nf dòirlinne g dòirlinnean pl

isthmus, peninsula, stony part of the shore

An Dòirlinn NF7317, Tòrr na Dòirlinne NM6058

domhain

alternative form of domhainn

Camas Domhain NG8307, Gleann Domhain NM8610

domhainn adj

deep, hollow

Allt Domhainn NH6180, Chlais Domhainn NC1860

donn adj

brown

Lochan Donn NM7188, Maol Donn NM7431

dorch adj

dark, black, dusky, mysterious

Rèidh Dorch NJ1715, Glendorch NS8718

dorcha

alternative form of dorch

Ruigh Dorcha NN9273, Slochd Dorcha NM4771

dòrn nm dùirn g dùirn pl

fist, fist‑sized pebble

Dùn Dùirn NR6907, Uamh Gill’an Dùirn NM6901

drim

anglicised form of druim

Drimbuie NN0322, Drimlee NN1416

dris nf drise g drisean pl

bramble

Allt Doire na Drise NM6283, Beinn na Drise NM4742

driseach adj

covered in brambles

Rubha Driseach NR9896, Torran Driseach NM5652

drochaid nf drochaide g drochaidean pl

bridge

Càrn na Drochaide NO1293, Drochaid a’ Chadha NG8640

droigheann nm droighinn g

bramble, blackthorn

Port nan Droigheann NM4419, Lagan Droigheann NR7148

droma, dromannan

see druim

Sròn an Droma NM7600

druid nm druidean pl

starling

Tòrr nan Druidean NM9779, Cnoc Druidean NM2723

druim nm droma g dromannan pl

ridge

Ploc an Droma NG8186

drum

anglicised form of druim

Drumbain NJ2749, Drumbeg NC1232

dubh adj

black

Poll Dubh NH4061, Rubha Dubh NC8068

duine nm duine g daoine pl

man, person, people

Leac an Duine NN1106, Sloc nan Daoine NF8315

dùirn

see dòrn

Dùn Dùirn NR6907, Uamh Gill’an Dùirn NM6901

dùn nm dùin g dùin pl

fortress, castle, heap

An Dùn NC8566, Dùn a’ Bhealaich NR7376

each nm eich g eich pl

horse

Mòine nan Each NN5013, Rubha nan Each NB0320

eadar pr

between

Cnoc Eadar Dà Bheinn NB1402, Ùidh Eadar Dà Loch NC2749

eag nf eige g eagan pl

notch, gap

Druim na h‑Eige NB4257, Sgùrr na h‑Eige NH0527

eagach adj

jagged

Aonach Eagach NN1558

eaglais nf eaglaise g eaglaisean pl

church

Allt na h‑Eaglaise NC8659, Beinn na h‑Eaglaise NG9052

eala nf eala, ealaidh g ealachan pl

swan

Loch nan Ealachan NC6751

ear adj

east

Tràigh Ear NF8276, Cathadail an Ear NB0910

earb nf earba g earbaichean pl

roe

Lòn nan Earb NG4168, Rubha na h‑Earba NM9155

earrann nf earrainn g earrannan pl

share, portion, section of land

Cnoc nan Earrannan NR5164, Dubh Earrainn NR7458

eas nm easa g easan pl

waterfall, cataract

Allt an Eas Mhòir NO1599, Eas a’ Bhàinne NH2703

easg nmf easga g easgan pl

marsh, swamp, ditch formed by nature

An t‑Easg Leathain NN8069

eich

see each

Allt an Eich Dhuibh NH4112

eidheann nf eidhne g

ivy

Creag na h‑Eidhne NM5539, Badan Eidhne NM9114

eige

see eag

Bealach na h‑Eige NH1327

èilde, èildean

see eilid

eileach nm eilich g eilichean pl

stony place, mill lade, mill dam, mound, islet

Eileach an Naoimh NM6309, An t‑Eileach NN6496

èileag nf èileige g èileagan pl

deer‑trap

Loch Èileag NC3006, Allt Èileag NC3007

eilean nm eilein g eileanan pl

island

Eilean a’ Bhàta NG8034, Eilean a’ Chait NG8034

eilich, eilichean

see eileach

Loch an Eilich NG9991

eilid nf èilde g èildean pl

hind, female of the red deer

Beinn Èilde NN5685, Camas na h‑Èilde NM7084

eldrick, eldrig

anglicised forms of èileag

Black Eldrick NX7354, High Eldrig NX2569

ellan

anglicised form of eilean

Ellanmore ND2337, Ellangowan NX9874

elrick

anglicised form of èileag

Little Elrick NJ9244, Drumelrick Hill NJ5518

eòin

see eun

Loch an Eòin NC7014

eòrna nm

barley

Eilean an Eòrna NC4401, Aonan an Eòrna NR3776

eun nm eòin g eòin pl

bird, fowl

Loch nan Eun NC9254, Coire nan Eun NH2047

fada adj

long

Allt Fada NC7551, Bogha Fada NM2154

fadhail nf fadhail, fadhlach g fadhlaichean pl

extensive beach, tidal ford

Fadhail Losgaintir NG0698, Fadhail Sheileboist NG0697

faing nf fainge g faingean pl

sheep pen, fank

Tom na Faing NB4248, Tràigh na Fainge NB4636

faire nf fairean pl

watch, lookout

Beinn na Faire NR6017, Allt na Faire NH3489

fàl nm fàil g fàil pl

hedge, fence, fold

Sgeir Fàil NB1137, Allt Àirigh Fàil NB2225

fàil

see fàl

fang nf

alternative form of faing

Fang Bhuidhe NN2142, Fang nan Each NG1553

faodhail nf faodhalach g faodhalaichean pl

alternative form of fadhail

Faodhail Dhubh NM6471, Allt na Faodhalach NS1493

faoileag nf faoileige g faoileagan pl

sea gull

Eilean na Faoileige NH2903, Loch na Faoileige NC2119

faoileann nf faoilinn g faoileannan pl

alternative form of faoileag

Loch na Faoilinn NF8051, Port na Faoilinn NM7430

fas nm

non‑standard form of fasadh

Fas na Cloiche NN0248

fàsach nmf fàsaich g fàsaichean pl

wilderness, mountain, hill edge, border

Fàsach NG1849, Rubha nam Fàsaichean NM7290

fasadh nm fasaidh g

stance, station, level spot

Fasadh an Fhamhair NM7870

fasgadh nm fasgaidh g fasgadhean pl

shelter, fold, pen‑fold for cattle

Am Fasgadh NN0169, Tigh Fasgaidh NG8727

feadag nf feadaige g feadagan pl

flute, whistle, plover

Bàgh nam Feadag NF8757, Cnoc na Feadaige ND0769

feadan nm feadain g feadanan pl

reed, canal, opening, streamlet

Allt Feadain Bhàin NN2054, Bealach an Fheadain NG8132

feannag nf feannaige g feannag pl

crow, lazy bed

Rubha nam Feannag NM4199, Druim nam Feannag NH2997

fear nm fir g fir pl

man

Blàr nam Fear Mòra NC1425, Fear an Fhèilidh NM6020

fearann nm fearainn g

land, estate, farm, earth

Fearann Làimhrige NM4196, Fearann‑Coille NS1674

feàrna nf

alder tree

Rubha Feàrna NM9977, Allt Feàrna NC7532

fèidh

see fiadh

Eilean Ceann Fèidh NM7284

fèith nf fèithe g fèithichean pl

bog, underground stream, bog channel

Allt na Fèithe Baine NH0759, Bealach na Fèithe NC3741

feòir

see feur

Eilean Feòir NM5338

fern

anglicised form of

feàrna

Ardfern NM8004, Bogfern NJ7758, Drimfern NN0814

feur nm feòir g

grass, hay

Sgeir an Fheòir NG8037, Creag an Fheòir NH2411

feusag nf feusaig g feusagan pl

beard

Creag Feusag NH2133, Glac na Feusaige NN1339

fh‑

A word starting fh is often a lenited form of a word starting f

fiacail nf fiacla g fiaclan pl

tooth

Càrn nam Fiaclan NH1245, Fiaclan Garbha NN2494

fiaclach adj

serrated, tooth‑shaped

Àth Fiaclach NM8316, Druim Fiaclach NM8078

fiadh nm fèidh g fèidh pl

deer

Eilean an Fhèidh NH0596, Creag an Fhèidh NN3218

fin

anglicised form of fionn

Fincraigs NO3622, Fingask NO3918

fiodhag nf fiodhaige g fiodhagan pl

bird‑cherry, wild fig

Allt nam Fiodhag NH3223, Loch nam Fiodhag NH3123

fionn adj

white, fair, blessed, holy

Craigfionn NX4593, Fionn Phort NM7533

fir

see fear

Fir Bhreugach NG4470

fireach nm firich g firichean pl

high barren ground, mountain, moor

Fireach na Mòine NN2326, Am Fireach NH0978

fitheach nm fithich g fithich pl

raven

Creag an Fhithich NC2553, Cnoc an Fhithich NC9758

fliuch adj

wet

Fliuch Choire NH2372, Eas Fliuch Leirg NN2830

fo dheas adj

non‑standard form of bho dheas

Cas fo Dheas NF8231

fo thuath adj

non‑standard form of bho thuath

Tràigh Baile fo Thuath NF9087

fraoch nm fraoich g

heather

Àird an Fhraoich NF7270, Coire an Fhraoich NH0474

frith adj

small

An Fhrith Aìrd NG8303

frìth nf frìthe g frìthean pl

deer forest, heath, moor

Abhainn na Frìthe NC8327, Srath na Frìthe NC8327

fuar adj

cold, chilly

Fuar Achadh NR9148, Allt Fuar NJ1420

fuaran nm fuarain g fuarain, fuaranan pl

well spring, green spot

Fuaran Mòr NC4640, Cnoc Fuarain ND1134

gabhar nf gabhair g gaibhre pl

alternative form of gobhar

Stob Gaibhre NN0646, Eilean nan Gabhar NM6157

gaimhne

see gamhainn

Allt Fèith nan Gaimhne NH2159

gaineamhach adj

sandy

Meall Gaineamhach NG6949, Lochan Gaineamhach NH0945

gainneamh, gainmheach nf gainneimh, gainmhich g

sand, gravel, sea‑shore

Gaineamh Mhòr NG8075, Loch na Gaineimh NC7630

gairt

see gart

Gall nm Goill g Goill pl

foreigner, lowlander, stone

Clach nan Gall NH7282, Rubha nan Gall NB4738

gamhainn nf gaimhne, gamhna g gaimhne, gamhna pl

stirk (a nickname for a resident of the Isle of Gigha)

Loch nan Gamhna NC6458, Fèith Gamhna ND0157

gaoth nf gaoithe g gaothan pl

wind

Bealach Gaoithe NH2456, Creag na Gaoithe NH1241

gaothach adj

windy

Cnoc Gaothach NR8495, Bealach Gaothach NM9033

gàradh

non‑standard form of gàrradh

Allt a’ Gàraidh NG1747, Rubha Gàraidh NH3100

garbh adj

rough, coarse

Allt Garbh NC2759, Garbh Choire NC3019

gàrradh nm gàrradh g gàrraidhean pl

den, dyke, enclosure

An Gàrradh NM6020, Cnap nan Gàrradh NN3412

gart nm gairt g

field, enclosed corn‑land

Sean‑Ghairt NR3867, Lùb Gairt Bhig NN3044

gead nf gid g geadan pl

rig, narrow strip of land, lazy‑bed

Gead a’ Bhodaich NM6556, Gead Dhubh NG8284

gèadh nmf geòidh g geòidh pl

goose

Loch nan Geòidh NR1852, Creagan Geòidh NN1327

geal adj ghil g

white, clear

An Dùn Geal NN7447, Gleann Geal NM7250

geàrr adj

short

Geàrr Aonach NN1555

geàrraidh nm geàrraidhean pl

land around a township, enclosure

Geàrraidh a Deas NB4748, Geàrraidh Amadal NB4657

geata nm geataichean, geatachan pl

gate

Geata Gleann Goibhre NH4347, Geata Dearg NN6995

geo

anglicised form of geodha

Geo Bhàta NF7345

geodha nm geodhachan, geodhaichean pl

chasm, ravine

Geodha an Fhaing NF7274, Geodha Bàn NC3871

geòidh

see gèadh

Loch Geòidh NM9503

gh‑

A word starting gh is often a lenited form of a word starting g

ghil adj

see geal

Loch an Easa Ghil NB2025, Allt Lòin Ghil ND1035

ghlais adj

see glas

Allt a’ Choire Ghlais NN5265, Coire an Eich Ghlais NH1278

gid

see gead

gil nf gile g gilean pl

ravine, water course

Gil Ha‑cleit NG0287, Gil Dhubh NG1294

gille nm gillean pl

boy, lad

Loch nan Gillean NH6892, Coire nan Gillean NH5977

giubhas nm

alternative form of giuthas

Sròn nan Giubhas NN2446, Rubha Giubhais NH1099

giuthas nm giuthais g

fir

Lòn Giuthas nan Leac NH4889

glac nf glaic(e) g glacan pl

hollow, small valley

Glac Bhàn NH0197, Glac Chrom NR8066

glack

anglicised form of glac

Glackmore NH6051, Glackmuick NJ3642

glaise adj

see glas

Allt Creige Glaise NS0885, Lochan na Bà Glaise NM7188

glas adj ghlais (m) glaise (f) g

grey, green

Coire Glas NC6927, Dùn Glas ND0617

gleann nm glinn g glinn, gleanntan pl

narrow valley, dale, glen

An Gleann NM7106, Allt a’ Ghlinne NH5390

glen

anglicised form of gleann

Inverglen NN0901, Glen Albyn NH6138

glinn

see gleann

Mullach a’ Ghlinne NH3601

glumag nf glumaig g glumagan pl

puddle, deep hole or pool

Allt na Glaic Glumag NG7023

gob nm guib g guib pl

point, beak

Gob na Hoe NG1954, Gob an Tùir NG8827

gobha nm gobhann, gobhainn g goibhnean pl

blacksmith

Uamh nan Goibhnean NR2742, Maol Baile a’ Ghobhain NG7978

gobhar nmf gobhair, goibhre g gobhair, goibhrean pl

goat

Allt na Goibhre NH1473, Meall nan Gobhar NC1903

gòbhlach adj

forked

Cadha Gòbhlach NH0682, Lochan Gòbhlach NH4274

goibhnean

see gobha

goibhre, goibhrean

see gobhar

Sròn na Goibhre NH1372

Goill

see Gall

Biod a’ Ghoill NG2759

goirtean nm goirtein g goirteanan pl

field, arable enclosure, arable land, park

Loch nan Goirtean NB2444, Goirtean Bàn NR3460

gorm adj

green, blue, azure

Poll Gorm NB3221, Coire Gorm NC3628

gowan

anglicised form of gobha

Tirrygowan NJ6711, Balnagowan NJ5100, Ardgowan NS2073

gower

anglicised form of gobhar

Auchengower NS2184, Bargower NS4732

grànda adj

ugly, nasty, grim

Camas Grànda NG7270, Allt Grànda NH1170

grian nf grèine g grianan pl

sun

Allt na Grèine NH4295, Rubha na Grèine NB5633

grianan nm grianain g

sunny hillock

Rubha Grianain NR7486, Eilean Grianain NR8142

gualann nf gualainn, guailne g guailnean, guaillean pl

shoulder of a hill, elbow, corner

Gualann nan Càrn NR7169, A’ Ghualann NC8367

guib

see gob

Loch a’ Ghuib Àird NC1823

gun pr

without

Loch gun Tòin NH5350, Aodann gun Nighe NM4335

iar adj

west, westerly

Tràigh Iar NG0396, Ceann Iar NF6162

iasgair nm iasgair g iasgairean pl

fisherman

An t‑Iasgair NG3574, Loch an Iasgair NF7430

ìghne

see nighean

imir nm imire g imirean pl

rig, ridge of land

Imir Crom NN2433, Imir Fada NC2922

imrich nf imriche g imrichean pl

removal, flitting

Guala na h‑Imrich NF7969, Bealach na h‑Imrich NC3650

inbhir nm inbhirean pl

place of meeting of rivers, confluence

An t‑Inbhir NN4048, Meall InbhirNN0736

inch

anglicised form of innis

Inchmore NH3940, Inchnacaorach NH8449

inghinn

see nighean

Fuaran na h‑Inghinn NN7454, Loch na h‑Inghinn NB3524

innean nm innein g inneanan pl

anvil, anvil‑shaped hill

An t‑Innean Mòr NN1856, Achlais an Innein NM9164

innis nf ìnnse g ìnnsean, ìnnseachan pl

island, meadow, resting place for cattle

Innisdaimh NN4635, Cnoc na h‑Ìnnse NC9847

inver

anglicised form of inbhir

Inverfyne NN1912, Inverlochy NJ1324

ìobairt nf ìobairte g ìobairtean pl

offering, church‑land, sacrifice

Clach na h‑Ìobairt NN8765, Tom na h‑Ìobairt NN8865

ìochdar nm ìochdair g ìochdaran pl

lower part

Druim Ìochdair NN5812, Creag Ìochdair NN7328

iola nf iolachan pl

fishing rock, fishing bank, fishing station

Bàrr Iola NR9382, An Iola NN0048

iolair(e) nmf iolaire g iolairean pl

eagle

Tom na h‑Iolaire NC9221, Creag na h‑Iolaire NC7846

iomair nm iomaire g iomairean pl

alternative form of imir

Lùib Iomaire Mhòir NN0705, Allt nan Iomairean NM5950

ìosal adj

low

Tom Ìosal NB2629, Cnoc Dubh Ìosal NB3223

iubhar nm iubhair g iubharan pl

yew

Leac an Iubhair NM9971, Meall an Iubhair NS2094

ken, kin

anglicised form of ceann

Kenknock NN4636

kil

anglicised form of cill

Kilmany NO3821, Kilbride NR8362

kil

anglicised form of coille

kil

anglicised form of ceann

Kilmux NO3604

killie

anglicised form of coille

Killiecrankie NN9162

kin

anglicised form of ceann

Kincraig NH8205, Kinlochmoidart NM7172

knab

anglicised form of cnap

The Knab HU4840, Horse of the Knab HU4840

knock

anglicised form of cnoc

Knock Dhu NH8380, Knock Fell NX2555

kyles

anglicised form of caolas

Kylesmore NM6674, Claddach‑kyles NF7666

labhar adj

loud

Alltan Labhar NG8157, Easan Labhar NM5341

lach nf lacha g lachan pl

wild duck

ladhar nm ladhair, ladhra g ladhran pl

paw, hoof

Ladhar Bheinn NG8203

lag nmf laig, luig g lagan pl

hollow, pit, cave

Lag a’ Bhàinne NM9706, Lag a’ ChoireNM4664

laimrig, làimhrig nf laimrige g laimrigean pl

natural landing‑place, quay, harbour

Rubha Làimhrige NR5366, Sròn Làimhrige NM4787

lainn

see lann

làir, làire nf làiridh, làire(adh), làrach g làiridhean pl

mare

Coire na Làire NM9066, Lag na Làire NG2394

làirig nf làirigean pl

moor, hill, sloping hill, pass

Lochan Làirig NN8041, Lochan na Làirige NN5939

lann nf lainn g lannan pl

enclosure, land

Lann Bhreac NN6359, Lann Mhòr NN5292

laogh nm laoigh g laoigh, laoghan pl

calf

Beul an Laoigh NG9936, Càrn Allt Laoigh NH9231

làrach nf làraich g làraichean pl

site of a building, ruin

Glac na Làraiche NN0166, Lag na Làraich NB3143

làrach

see làir

Loch na Làrach NG7243

leaba, leabaidh nf leapa g leapannan pl

bed, lair, channel of a river

Leabaidh Fhèidh NC3002, Leabaidh a’ Mhinisteir NB4929

leac nf lic, lice g leacan pl

ledge of a rock, flat stone, slab

Leac a’ Bhàinne NM9078, Coire na Lice NN8357

leacach nf leacaich g leacaichean pl

bare summit, stony side of a hill

Leacach NC3165, Leacach Bhreac NR9025

leacach adj

stony

Lochan Leacach NC6857, Coire LeacachNC5352

leamhan nm leamhain g leamhan pl

elm

Loch na Leamhain NB2434, Beinn

Leamhain NM9562

lèana nf lèanan g lèanachan pl

swampy plain, meadow, field of green

Lèana an Fheòir NG0689, Lèana Bhàn NB4956

lèanag nf lèanaig g lèanagan pl

wet plain or lea

Lèanag Mòr a’ Bhàird ND0753

leapa, leapannan

see leaba

learg nf leirg g leargan pl

plain, hillside

Learg an Lochain NN4015, Loch na Leirg NG8890

leathad nm leathaid, leothaid g leathaidean, leòidean pl

side of a hill, slope

Leathad a’ Ghlinne NF0899, Leathad an Droma NB2638

leathan(n) adj

broad

Loch Leathann NB3816, Leathan Dhail NN6510

leck

anglicised form of leac

AuchinleckNS5521, Achleck NM4145

lèig nf lèige g lèigean pl

marshy or miry pool, shallow stream

Druim na Lèige NB2126, Druim Lèig a’ Bhainne NB2339

lèim

see leum

Rubha na Lèim NM8246

leirg

see learg

Loch na Leirg NG8890

lèith, lèithe

see liath

Allt na Doire Lèithe NG8991

leitir nf leitire, leitreach g leitirean, leitrichean pl

slope, side of a hill

Dubh Leitir NC1734, Garbh Leitir NM7000

lèoidean

see leathad

leothaid

see leathad

Fèith an Leothaid NH0358

leth nm

half; with one steep side (as in Leth‑Allt ’burn with one steep side’)

Leth‑Sgeir NR7389, Leth‑Allt NH2299

letter

anglicised form of leitir

Duiletter NN1530, Gairletter NS1884

leum nm lèim g leuman pl

leap

Leum an Fhèidh NC0801, Leum Chaimbeulaich NS2094

lianag

non‑standard form of lèanag

Lianag Mhòr NC2106, Lianag na h‑Àtha NG7574

liath adj lèith(e) g

grey, blue

Loch Liath NH3319, Allt na Doire Lèithe NG8991

lic, lice

see leac

Coire na Lice NN8357

lìn

see lìon

linn, linne nf linne g linneachan, linntean pl

pool, pond, lake, mill‑dam, channel

Loch na Linne NB3330, Allt na Linne NN0967

lìon nm lìn g lìontan pl

flax

Eilean nan Lìon NF9270, Cnoc nan Lìon NB1323

lios nmf lise, liosa g liosan pl

enclosure, garden, fortified place

Seann Lios NH5442

lise

see lios

loch nm locha g lochan pl

lake, arm of the sea

Loch a Tuath NB1120, Loch Beag NC8863

lochan nm lochain g lochain pl

small loch or lake

Lochan a’ Bhàigh NM2563, Lochan Buidhe ND0369

lòin, lòintean

see lòn

Lochan Dubh Cùl an Lòin ND0552

loisgte adj

burnt

Lochan Loisgte NM6264, Mòine Loisgte NR7661

lòn nm lòin g lòintean pl

marsh, morass, pool,

meadow

Lòn a’ Chlèirich NG2650, Bad an Lòin NO1270

long nf luinge g longan pl

ship

Bàgh na Luinge NR4345, Camas Luinge NM8677

losgann nm losgainn g losgannan pl

frog, toad

Lag na Losgainn NR4272, Loch Losgainn NH6693

luachar nf luachair, luachrach g

place where rushes grow

Lòn Luachrach NG3522, Maol na Luachrach NM6323

lùb nf lùib g lùban pl

meander, bend

Sgeir Lùb nan Ròn NR6094

lùib nf lùibe g lùibean pl

alternative form of lùb

Lùib Bhàn NC4547, Lùib Luachrach NN2043

luig

see lag

Port an Luig Mhòir NG5212

luinge

see long

Port Bàta na Luinge NM4141

mac nm mhic g

son

Coire Mhic Fhearchair NG9460, Mac is

Màthair NH0687

machair nmf machrach g machraichean pl

extensive, low‑lying fertile ground

Machair Leathann NF8277, Cruach na Machrach NR8863

madadh nm madaidh g madaidhean pl

dog, wolf, fox

Fèith nam Madadh NN7880, Leac nam Madadh NF9567

magh nmf magha g magaidh pl

plain, field

Magh Torray NB0617, Magh‑cul NN5590

maigheach nf maighiche g maighichean pl

hare

Meall nam Maigheach NM9576, Tom nam

Maigheach NN5616

maing

see mang

màis

see màs

màm nmf màim g màman pl

breast, large round hill, gap

Màm Mòr NH5742, Allt a’ Mhàim NG9325

manach nm manaich g manaich pl

monk

Allt nam Manach NR7831, Bàrr nam Manach NR9484

mang nf maing g mangan pl

fawn, young hart

Coire nam Mang NC4133

maol nm maoil g maoil pl

bare top, promontory, bare round hill

Càrn Maol NH8645, Cnoc Maol Donn NC9755

mara

see muir

Rubha na Muice Mara NN0377

màs nm màis g màsan pl

buttock, bottom

Màs a’ Chnuic NF9694, Màs an Rubha NB1303

màthair nf màthar g màthraichean pl

mother, source

Mac is Màthair NH0687, Lochan Màthair Eite NN2854

meadhan, meadhon nm meadhain, meadhoin g

meadhanan, meadhonan pl

middle, centre

Meall Meadhoin NC8006, Monadh Meadhoin NM7153

meall nm mill g mill pl

lump, applied to a round hill

Meall Buidhe ND0057

meanbh adj

small

Blàr Meanbh NN1277, Meanbh Chnocan

Glen NB0022

meann nm minn g minn pl

kid, young roe‑deer

Rubha nam Meann NR5480, Sgeir nam Meann NC0834

mèinn nf mèinne g mèinnean pl

mine, ore

mèirleach nm mèirlich g mèirlich pl

thief, robber

Cnoc a’ Mhèirlich NG4468

meur nf meòir g meòir pl

finger, branch, applied to small streams

Allt Meur nan Clach NH2144

mh‑

A word starting mh is often a lenited form of a word starting m

mhic

see mac

Coire Mhic Fhearchair NG9460

mill

see meall

Sròn a’ Mhill NG4843

mìn adj

soft, tender, delicate, smooth

Creag Mhìn NN9047, Mhìn‑choise NN7481

minn

see meann

Loch a’ Mhinn NM8612

mnà

see bean

Allt na Mnà Bàine NH3899, Druim na Mnà NB2332

mòd nm mòid g mòdan pl

court, trial, meeting

Allt a’ Mhòid NC5638, Tom a’ Mhòid NH5320

moil

see mol

Camas Chala Moil NA9923

mòine nf mònadh, mòine g mònach pl

peat, moor

Cnoc na Mòine NC6252, Druim na Mòine NB2031

mòinteach nf mòintich g mòintichean pl

mossy ground, moor

Mòinteach a’ Lòin NB1120, Mòinteach Dhubh NN2179

mol nm moil, mola g molan pl

shingly beach

Mol a’ Chaolais NG2297, Mol a’ Deas NB3202

molach adj

hairy, rough, stormy

Na Lùibean Molach NC2301, Tom Molach NS2196

mona

anglicised form of mòine

Monabuie NN9727

mònach, mònadh

see mòine

monadh nm monaidh g monaidhean pl

mountain, moor, heath

Monadh Beag NN1585, Allt a’ Mhonaidh NG7850

mòr adj

large, great

Monadh Mòr NH5853, Mòr Bheinn NN7121

more

anglicised form of mòr

Ardmore NC2051, Auchmore NK0057

morghan nm morghain g

gravel, shingle, pebbly beach

Loch a’ Mhorghain NB1504, Bàgh Tòb a’ Mhorghain NB1137

muc nf muice g mucan pl

pig

Rubha na Muice Mara NN0377, Allt nam Muc NJ1321

muck

anglicised form of muc

Culnamuck NF6500, Drummuck NS2303

muice

see muc

Coire Gleann na Muice NC3711

muigh

see a‑muigh

muileann nm muilinn g muilnean, muileannan pl

mill

Druim a’ Mhuilinn NM6042, Loch a’ Mhuilinn NC8756

muilt

see mult

Loch a’ Mhuilt Dhuibh NG1392

muir nmf mara g marannan pl

sea

Sloc na Mara NN1982, Taobh na Mara NR7165

mullach nm mullaich g mullaichean pl

top, summit

Am Mullach NO3790, Camas nam Mullach NM6962

mult nm muilt g muilt pl

wether, castrated ram

Bad nam Mult NC1741, Camas nam Mult NG7013

muran nm murain g

sea bent

Creag nam Muran NM7805, Eilean a’ Mhurain NF8754

na, na h‑, nam, nan

forms of definite article “the”

nathair nf nathrach g nathraichean pl

snake, adder

Meall Nathrach NN4475, Allt nan Nathair NC7025

nead nmf nid g nid pl

nest, circular hollow

An Nead NH1031, Coire nan Nead NN4273

nic nf

daughter (abbreviation of nighean mhic)

Loch Nic Dhomhnaill NB4949, Rubha Nic Eamoin NG2404

nighean nf nighinne, ìghne, inghinn g nigheanan pl

daughter, young woman

Tobar nan Nighean NG2757, Allt na h‑Ighine NH2181

òb nm òbain g òbain pl

small bay, harbour

Òb a’ Chlachain NF8243, Òb Dubh NG7458

ochter

anglicised form of uachdar

Ochtertyre NN8323

odhar adj

dun‑coloured, pale, yellow

Sròn a’ Choire Odhair NN2058, Coire Odhar NG7886

oidhche nf oidhche g oidhcheannan pl

night

Bealach na h‑Oidhche NG8314, Loch na h‑Oidhche NH1577

òir

see òr

oitir nf oitire g oitirean pl

sand bank, shallow

Oitir Mhòr NF8157, Oitir Bheag NF8246

òr nm òir g

gold

Sgeir an Òir NC6164, Uamh an Òir NG9795

òrd nm ùird g òrdan, ùird pl

round hill

Beinn Ùird NS3998, Cnoc an Ùird NH5341

òs nm òsa g òsan pl

mouth or outlet of a river

Òs a Muigh NB0333, Òs Uarach NB4252

pàirc nf pàirce g pàircean pl

field, enclosure

A’ Phàirc Loisgte NN4856, Cnoc na Pàirce NG4150

pait nf paite g paitean pl

lump, hump

Pait Fhearchair NG9384, Sgùrr na Paite NM8281

partan nm partain g partanan pl

small edible sea‑crab

Poll nam Partan NM4884, Port nam Partan NM3452

peighinn nf peighinne g peighinnean pl

pennyland (an old Scottish land measurement)

Allt Coire Pheiginn NN7451, Allt na Peighinn NG6217

ph‑

A word starting ph is often a lenited form of a word starting p

plucan nm plucain g plucanan pl

knot, lump, piece of earth

Pluc Mòr NH7020

pòir

see pòr

poit nf poite g

pot

Coire na Poite NG8145

poll nm puill g puill pl

pool, pit, deep stagnant water, wet meadow

Poll a’ Bhainne NG3656, Poll a’ Choire NB4231

pòr nm pòir g pòran pl

seed, grain, corn, crops

Caochan nam Pòran NH6434

port nm puirt g puirt pl

port, harbour, ferry

Port a’ Bhàta NB0100, Port an Duine NM1752

preas nm pris g preasan, pris pl

shrub, bush, thicket

Preas a’ Chrannaidh NC2809, Preas Caol NC9250

puill

see poll

puirt

see port

Eilean Puirt Lèithe NR6975

raineach nf rainich g

fern

Coire Rainich NH3975, Creag Rainich NB0331

ràmh nm ràimh g ràimh pl

oar

Eilean nan Ràmh NF7619, Loch nan Ràmh NB3229

raon nf raoin g raontan, raointean pl

field

An Raon NG7478, Raon na Ceàrdaich NC0925

ràth nm

fort

Ràth Fhinn NN3098, Allt Ràth a’ Bheulain NM5166

rathad nm rathaid, rothaid g ròidean pl

road, way

Crom‑Rathad NH6090, Bealach an Rathaid NH3848

reamhar adj

fat

Maol Reamhar NS3391, Meall Reamhar NN4622

rèidh nm rèidhean pl

smooth, level ground, plain, meadow

Coire Rèidh NC3220, Leac Rèidh NB3909

rèilig nf rèilige g rèiligean pl

grave, burying place, church

Fèith Rèilig NC5059

rèisg

see riasg

reoch

anglicised form of riabhach

Tynreoch NN7123, Alltreoch NO0956

riabhach adj

brindled, greyish,

brown

Srath Riabhach NR6388, Sròn Riabhach NO1675

riasg nm rèisg g

moor, fen

The Riasg ND3138, Tom an Rèisg NJ1515

rìgh nm rìgh g rìghrean pl

king

Càrn an Rìgh NC3757, Clach an Rìgh NC6839

rinn nm rinne g rinnean pl

point, promontory

Rinn a’ Chrubain NR9023, Rinn Dearg NJ2908

rioch

anglicised form of riabhach

Barranrioch NM8929, Dalrioch NR6918

rodh nm rodha g

water‑edge, water mark

Allt Uchd Rodha NH2539, Rubha Rodha NC0523

roid nf roide g roidean pl

bog myrtle

Camas na Roide NG1893

ròidean

see rathad

ròin

see ròn

Loch an Ròin NC1954

roinn nf roinne g roinnean pl

division, share, portion

Gob na Roinne NH0017, Rubha na Roinne NG4200

rois

see ros

ròn nm ròin g ròin pl

seal

Rubha nan Ròn NF8158, Sgeir an Ròin NG6724

ros nm rois g rosan pl

promontory, isthmus, peninsula

Ros a’ Mheallain NG3740

rothaid

see rathad

Loch an Rothaid NG1491

ruadh adj

red, brown

Ruadh Bhealach NN1248, Rubha Ruadh NC4462

rubha nm rubhaichean pl

promontory, headland, point of land

Sean‑Rubha NL9346, Rubha na Lice NM8029

ruighe nmf ruighean pl

hill‑slope, sheiling

Ruighe a’ Ghlaic NN7353, Allt an Ruighe Bhric NM8686, Allt na Ruighe Lèithe NH5176, Ruighean an Daimh NC5852

sabhal nm sabhail g sabhalan pl

barn, granary

Allt an t‑Sabhail NH5291, Cnoc an t‑Sabhail NC5233

sac nm saic g saic, sacan pl

horse load

Cnoc an t‑Saic NH3398, Druim an t‑Saic NN6362

sagart nm sagairt g sagartan pl

priest

Eilean an t‑Sagairt NM9231, Lòn an t‑Sagairt NR7081

saic

see sac

Cnoc an t‑Saic NH3398

saidh nf saidhe g saidhean pl

upright beam, post

Loch Coire na Saidhe NC4436, Sgeir nan Saidhean NM7010

saighead nf saighde g saighdean pl

arrow

Lochan nan Saighead NB1705, Beinn na Saighde NB4236

sàil nf sàl, sàile, sàlach g sàilean, sàiltean pl

heel

Sàil Mhòr NH1768, Sàil Gharbh NC4134

sàilean nm sàilein g sàileanan pl

little inlet, arm of the sea, deep bay

Sàilean Mòr NM5859, Sàilean Ruadh NM9833

sàl, sàlach

see sàil

Loch na Sàlach NH3267

salach adj

dirty

Camas Salach NM6861, Àirigh Shalach NH0666

saobhaidh nf saobhaidh(e) g saobhaidhean pl

animal‑den

Allt na Saobhaidhe ND0335, Caochan na Saobhaidh NJ0609

saor nm saoir g saoir pl

carpenter, wright

Eilean an t‑Saoir NM1455, Lùb an t‑Saoir NM9364

seabhag nmf seabhaig g seabhagan pl

hawk

Creag na Seabhaig NM9515, Allt na Seabhaig NH5315

seachd num

seven

Eilean nan Seachd Seisrichean NM4263

seagal nm seagail g

rye

Cnoc an t‑Seagaill NC2413, Allt an t‑Seagaill NH5473

sealg nf seilg g sealgan pl

hunt, chase

Loch na Seilge NC9258, Srath na Seilge NC7018

seamrag nf seamraig g seamragan pl

trefoil, shamrock

Beinn na Seamraig NG7217, Cnoc na Seamraig NN1621

sean adj

old

Sean‑Àirigh NC9458, Sean‑Allt NJ2014

seangan nm seangain g seangain, seanganan pl

ant

Sgeir an t‑Seangain NM7162, Allt nan Seangan NH5596

seann

alternative form of sean

Monadh Seann‑talaimh NH3001

searrach adj

edge, pointed, sharp

Coireag Searrach NH0031

searrach nm searraich g searraich pl

foal, colt

Cnoc nan Searrach NB2330, Glac nan Searrach NG4551

seasg nf seasga g seisg, seisge pl

bog‑reed

Cnocan Seasg NH9386, Carr Seasg NR7671

seilcheag nf seilcheig g seilcheagan pl

snail

Creag nan Seilcheag NG8300

seileach nm seilich g seileachan pl

willow

Fèith Seileach NG6711, Bad nan Seileach ND1131

seilg

see sealg

Loch na Seilg NC3658

seisg, seisge

see seasg

sgadan nm sgadain g sgadain pl

herring

Glac nan Sgadan NG9407, Port an Sgadain NR7084

sgarbh nm sgairbh g sgairbh pl

cormorant, heron

Rubha nan Sgarbh NB4929

sgeine, sgeinean

see sgian

sgeir nf sgeire g sgeirean pl

sea rook, skerry

Sgeir a’ Choire NR4043, Sgeir nan Sgarbh NB4057

sgian nf sgeine, sgine g sgeinean, sgineachan pl

knife

Sgian Dubh NS0675, Sgurr na Sgine NG9411

sgitheach nm sgithich g

hawthorn

Cnoc nan Sgitheach NS0199, Abhainn Sgitheach NH5162

sgoilte adj

split, cracked

Aonach Sgoilte NG8302, Càrn Sgoilte NB9706

sgòr nm sgòir g sgòran, sgòraichean pl

non‑standard form of sgùrr

Sgòr a’ Chaorainn NH4577, Sgòr an Daimh NN2971

sgòrr

alternative form of sgùrr

Sgòrr a’ Chait NN3406, Sgòrr an Fhithich NN5408

sgùrr nm sgurra g sgurran pl

rocky peak, sharp steep hill

Sgùrr a’ Bhuic NN2070, Sgùrr a’ Chaise NG5702

sh‑

A word starting sh is often a lenited form of a word starting s

siar

form of iar

Tamana Siar NB0020

sìdh nm

non‑standard form of sìth: (fairy) hill

Sìdh Beag NJ1713, Sìdh Mòr NJ1713

sidhean

non‑standard form of sìthean

Sidhean Mòr ND0556, Sidhean a’ Chlèirich NC1319

sionnach nm sionnaich g sionnaich pl

fox

Allt nan Sionnach NM7692, Coire an t‑Sionnaich NN1760

sìor adj

constant, eternal

Carraig an t‑Sìor Shruith NM2968

sìthean nm sìthein g sìthein pl

fairy knoll, hillock

Allt an t‑Sìthein NG4931, Cnoc nan Sìthean ND0342

sleac

alternative form of leac

Meall nan Sleac NN8694, Sleac Gorm NO2289

sleamhainn adj

slippery, smooth

Leac Shleamhuinn NF7714, Carraig Shleamhuinn NG2149

sliabh nm slèibh g slèibhtean pl

high moorland; purple moor‑grass (Molinia t‑Slèibhe caerulea)

Allt a’ Choire Sliabh NG9170, Càrn an NJ1411

slios nm sliosa g sliosan pl

side, slope

Loch an t‑Slios NB2124, Slios Garbh NG8888

sloc nm sluic g slocan pl

pit, hollow, pool

Sloc an Tairbh NF7200, Tom an t‑Sluic NN1479

slugaid nf slugaide g

quicksand, muddy place, gorge

Allt na Slugaide NB4839, Cnoc na Slugaide NB4739

sluic

see sloc

Lochan an t‑Sluic NN8290

sneachd nm sneachda g

snow

Coire an t‑Sneachda NH1927, Glac an t‑Sneachda NM4923

sobhal

non‑standard form of sabhal

Cnoc an t‑Sobhail NH2438

soc nm suic g

point, snout

Soc Glas NC3272, Soc Mhic Chailein NC1743

spàrdan nm spàrdain g spàrdain, spàrdanan pl

little eminence, hill, short steep slope

An Spàrdan NM6800, Bruthach nan Spàrdan NN7281

speireag nf speireig g speireagan pl

sparrow hawk

Cnoc nan Speireag NG3631, Creagan na Speireig NC4855

sprèidh nf sprèidhe g

cattle

Loch nan Sprèidh NH3893, Lag na Sprèidhe NM5521

sràid nf sràide g sràidean pl

road, street

Sràid Ruadh NL9547, Sràid Stac na Mòine NR2847

srath nm sratha g srathan pl

valley, riverside land

Srath a’ Bhàthaich NG8847, Abhainn an t‑Sratha NB1800

sròn nf sròine g srònan pl

nose, point

Sròn Mhòr NB1429, Sròn a’ Mhill NG4843

sruth nm srutha, sruith g sruthan pl

current, stream

Bun an t‑Sruth NF7366, Oban nan Sruthan NF8874

staca nm staca, staic g stacan, stacannan pl

high cliff or hill, precipice

Ruadh Stac NG5123, Stac nam Bodach NN9770

staigh

see a‑staigh

staimh nm staimh g

sea tangle

Poll an Staimh NG3764

stalla nm stallachan pl

overhanging rock, steep sea rock

Stalla nam Manach NG9170, Stallachan Dubha NM5362

steall nf still g steallan pl

torrent, cataract

Steall a’ Choire NC3728, Steall an Eisg NM8154

stob nm stuib g stoban pl

point, stake

Stob a’ Chaorainn NN4504, Stob a’ Chòin NN4116

strath

anglicised form of srath

Strathtay NN9153, Strathaird NG5317

stùc nf stùic g stùcan, stùcannan pl

little hill, cliff, pinnacle

Stùc a’ Bhuic NN3904, Stùc Bàn NS2996

stuib

see stob

sùbh nm sùibh g sùbhan pl

raspberry

Meall nan Sùbh NN4539, Bruach nan Sùbh NR4964

suic

see soc

suidhe nm suidhean, suidheachan pl

seat, sitting or resting place, level shelf

Càrn an t‑Suidhe NG8754, Suidhe Beag NJ2624

sùil nf sùla g sùilean pl

eye, sandy hole

Sùil an Ear NB1836, Sùil na Cloiche NB2320

taigh nm taighe g taighean pl

house

Allt nan Taighean NM7293, Bean an Taighe NM6375

tàillear nm tàilleir g tàillearan pl

tailor

Cnoc an Tàilleir NC6036, Coire an Tàilleir NH1839

tairbeart nf tairbeirt g tarbeartan pl

crossing, portage, isthmus

Loch an Tairbeirt NB3419, Tairbeart NG5847

tairbh

see tarbh

Luig an Tairbh NR3143

talamh nmf talamh, talmhainn g talamhan pl

land

Sean‑Talamh NN5615, Monadh

Seann‑talaimh NH3001

tana adj

thin, slender, shallow

Loch Tana NB3329

taobh nm taoibh g taobhan pl

side, way, place

Taobh a’ Ghlinne NN0372, Taobh Deas NF9692

tarbeartan

see tairbeart

tarbert

anglicised form of tairbeart

Tarbert NB1400

tarbh nm tairbh g tairbh pl

bull

Boglach nan Tarbh NM6724, Clach an

Tairbh NH1568

tarsainn adj

lying across, oblique

Toman Tarsainn NH5121, Allt Tarsainn NH1260

tartar nm tartair g

noise, clamour

Uamh an Tartair NC2109

teampall nm teampaill g teampaill pl

church

Teampull Bhuirgh NF7650, Teampull

Chriosd NF7861

teanga nf teangaidh g teangan, teangannan pl

tongue

Teanga Bhàn NM6526, Teanga nan Each NH0350

teine nm teintean pl

fire, beacon

Tom an Teine NN2179, Cnoc an Teine NH4747

th‑

A word starting th is often a lenited form of a word starting t

tibber, tiber

anglicised form of tiobar: well

Knockentiber NS3939, Auchentibber NS6754

tigh

non‑standard form of taigh

Tigh an Droma NS0427, Tigh an Eilein NO1464

tilly

anglicised form of tulach

Tillybrack NJ6619, Tillycairn NJ8331

tioram adj

dry

Cnocan Tioram NR7552, Eilean Tioram

NG7873

tìr nf tìre g tìrean pl

land

Tìr Dhubh NR9732, Tìr Chille NM3218

tòb nm

bay

Tòb a’ Chuilinn NB1733, Tòb a’ Ghearraidh NB0216

tobar nmf tobair, tobrach g tobraichean pl

well, fountain, spring

Tobar an Easbuig NF8040, Tobar na Slàinte NH8573

tobhta nm tobhtaichean pl

ruin with walls standing

Tobhta nan Druidhean NG5158, Tobhta NB0434

tobrach, tobraichean

see tobar

todhar nm todhair g todharan pl

field manured by penning cattle on it

Todhar Dubh NM4151, Ach’an Todhair NN0971

tòine

see tòn

toll nm tuill g tuill pl

hole, hollow

Toll Beag ND0427, Toll Creagach NH1513

tolm nm tuilm g tolman pl

island in a river or near shore

Tolm NB3350, Eilean Thuilm NM4791

tom nm tuim g tomannan pl

knoll (east), copse (west)

Tom na h‑Iolaire NC9221, Loch an Tuim NB4243

tòn nf tòine g tònan pl

fundament, breech, anus

Goirtein na Tòine NM6134, Tom na Tòine NC2630

torc nm tuirc g tuirc pl

boar

Càrn an Tuirc NO1780

tòrr nm torra g torran pl

heap, hill, mountain, mound

Tòrr a’ Bhacain NM3821, Tòrr a’ Chruidh NG3656

tràigh nf tràighe, tràghad g tràighean, tràghannan pl

beach

Cnoc na Tràighe NR2763, Tràigh Mhòr NB5448

trì num

three

Cnoc nan Trì Tom NB3124, Lòn Trì Chrìoch NM9518

tuath adj

north

Meall Tuath NG4176, Port a Tuath NA9812

tuill

see toll

Rubha Uamh an Tuill NR5162

tuilm

see tolm

Allt Thuilm NG0898

tuim

see tom

Beinn an Tuim NM9283

tùir

see tùr

Ceann an Tùir NM6041

tuirc

see torc

Coire Allt an Tuirc NH0522

tulach nm tulaich g tulaichean pl

knoll, hillock

Tom Mòr an Tulach NB3545, Tulach an Fhuarain ND1252

tullich

anglicised form of tulach

Cultullich NN8750, Glastullich NH1595

tulloch

anglicised form of tulach

Scoretulloch NS5836, Tulloch NH6192

tunnag nf tunnaig g tunnagan pl

duck

Loch Tunnaig NM9101, Tòb nan Tunnag NB1433

tùr nm tùir g tùir pl

tower

Tùr Mòr NM5545, Loch an Tùir NC1126

ty

anglicised form of taigh

Tyndrum NH5220, Tynabeinne NR2663, Tynacoille NR2763

uachdar nm uachdair g uachdaran pl

top, upper part, summit

Uachdar NF8055, Allt an Uachdair NR8934

uaimh nf uaimhe, uamha g uaimhean, uamhan pl

cave

Allt na h‑Uaimhe NH7201

uaine adj

green

Cnoc Uaine NG6709, Coire Uaine NH4383

uamh

alternative form of uaimh

Uamh an Òir NG9795

uchd nm uchda g uchdan pl

breast, ascent, side of a hill

Uchd a’ Bhlàir NM4279, Uchd an Ùird NG7931

ùidh nf ùidhe g ùidhean pl

isthmus, ford

Ùidh an Tuim NC2948, Ùidh Dhubh NC3039

ùig nf ùige g ùigean pl

nook, hollow, cave, den, bay

Bad na h‑Ùige ND0737, Bealach Ùige NG4464

uillt

see allt

Bad an Uillt ND2044

uinnseann nm uinnseinn g

ash tree

Allt an Uinnseinn NC3856, Cnoc an Uinnseinn NN5517

ùird

see òrd

Beinn Ùird NS3998, Cnoc an Ùird NH5341

uisge nm uisgean, uisgeachan pl

water, rain, river

Uisge Dhubh NH0038

ulaidh nf ulaidhe g ulaidhean pl

treasure

Tom na h‑Ulaidhe NN5811, Creagan na h‑Ulaidh NH2623

ùr adj

new, fresh, recent

Meall Ùr a’ Bhorraich NG7137

ùruisg nm ùruisge g ùruisgean pl

water spirit

Sruthan an Ùruisge NR5979

The background to the creation of this guide

Early in the 20th century, Ordnance Survey issued a small pamphlet, The most common Gaelic words used on the Ordnance Survey Maps, for use with the one‑inch maps of Scotland. In 1935, the Board of Celtic Studies and the University of Wales compiled a similar booklet, The most common Welsh words used on the Ordnance Survey Maps, for use with maps of Wales. This was reprinted in 1949.

Later it was decided to increase the scope of the Gaelic names pamphlet, so the Scottish Geographical Society undertook a complete recompilation and published an enlarged edition in 1951 which included a list of Scandinavian elements used in Scottish place names. In 1968, Ordnance Survey produced an A5 booklet, Place names on maps of Scotland and Wales, which combined revised versions of both earlier publications. The booklet underwent several reprints, with the last reprint published in 1995.

In the booklet, Ordnance Survey thanked Dr W F H Nicolaisen of the University of Edinburgh’s School of Scottish Studies for his advice on the Gaelic and Scandinavian elements, William Matheson, senior lecturer in the Department of Celtic Studies at the University of Edinburgh for the revised guide to Gaelic pronunciation, and the Board of Celtic Studies of the University of Wales for their help with the Welsh glossary.

In 2003, Ordnance Survey decided to update the content of the booklet, to extend the coverage to include the Scots language, and to publish the revised information electronically as a series of web pages. The resulting series of Guides, of which this is one, were published in 2004, with minor revisions to the Gaelic Guide in 2005, and was republished on GetOutside in 2019. They are not the definitive work on language influences in place names in Great Britain, but more a guide to common elements arising from Gaelic, Scandinavian, Scots and Welsh.

Ordnance Survey has benefited from the skill and expertise of various experts in reviewing the previous material and preparing these Guides. In the case of the Welsh section they are Professor Hywel Wyn Owen and Gruffudd Prys of the University of Wales in Bangor. For the Gaelic, Scots and Scandinavian sections they are Dr Anke‑Beate Stahl, Dr Simon Taylor, Peadar Morgan and the Gaelic Names Liaison Committee.

Further information and references

Top image: Amhuinnsuidhe (river shelf or ledge) Castle on Harris, Outer Hebrides, © Peter Moore, used under Creative Commons Licence via the Geograph project.

Ordnance Survey has a Gaelic names policy relating to the use and depiction of Gaelic names on their mapping and other products. Full details can be found on Gaelic Names Policies page.

Gaelic books and books and cassettes for Gaelic learners can be ordered through the web site of Comhairle nan Leabhraichean/The Gaelic Books Council (gaelicbooks.org). Information on various Gaelic‑language clubs, classes and courses around Scotland and beyond can be found on the web site of Clì Gàidhlig, the membership organisation for Gaelic learners and non‑native speakers

Details of books on Scottish place names can be found on the web site of the Scottish Place‑Name Society/Comann Ainmean‑Àite na h‑Alba at spns.org.uk

Cox, Richard A V (1991): Brìgh nam Facal, Gairm Publications, Glasgow

Gaelic Orthographic Conventions (2005), Scottish Qualifications Authority. Available on the web at sqa.org.uk

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