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The Welsh origins of place names in Britain

OS Team • Map Reading • Nov 07, 2019 • 10 mins

The Welsh origins of place names in Britain

Find the original meanings of British place names that use Welsh source words with this extensive list of terms, along with pronunciation.

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See also Scandanavian, Scots and Gaelic.

Copy and paste the grid references into OS Maps to see the location of each place.

Introduction to Welsh

Place names are made up of elements – the words people used to describe a place or their response to their environment. Place names can consist of a single generic element, usually a noun (Bryn, Talwrn or Dinas), but most place names comprise more than one element with a linguistic relationship between the elements. The generic can be qualified by:

  • an adjective (Bryn‑coch in Powys, SH7602);
  • an element defining the location in relation to a river (Brynaman);
  • an archaeological site (Bryn‑celli‑ddu);
  • a building (Bryneglwys in Denbighshire, SJ1447);
  • a person (Brynsiencyn in Isle of Anglesey, SH4867); or
  • vegetation (Bryncelyn)

Qualifying elements may, occasionally, precede the generic element (Gwynfryn in Wrexham, SJ2552). It is quite common for the definite article y to precede a place‑name (Y Bala, Y Waun, Y Trallwng).

Generic elements can be:

  • topographic, referring to features of the landscape; or
  • habitative names, describing the settlement in which people lived (tref, pentref and bod); or qualified by:
  • personal names (Tremadog, Pentremeurig, Bodorgan);
    • elements relating to size (Trefechan, Pentre‑bach, Bodfach);
    • elements relating to location (Tre’r‑ddôl, Pentre‑bont, Bodffordd); or
    • elements relating to adjacent building or feature (Trecastell, Pentre’r‑felin, Bodysgallen)

Ecclesiastical elements can loosely be described as habitative names, since many are combined with:

  • personal names, usually of saints (Llandudno, Betws Garmon, Capel Curig), or with
  • elements that specify a location (Llan‑faes, Betws‑y‑coed, Capel‑y‑ffin).

There are many pitfalls for the unwary, attempting to understand place names and indulging in the indiscriminate, uninformed and naïve interpretation of elements on the basis of the place names as they appear today. For example:

  • Swansea has nothing to do with swan or sea;
  • Hope is not connected with hope;
  • Caerdydd has no connection with dydd;
  • Ystradau is not dau;
  • Llai is not llai;
  • Tre‑saith is neither tre nor saith.

It is true that very many place names bestowed during the last two centuries do actually mean what they appear to mean. However, it is equally true that many place names are not what they seem, because of the passage of time, oral transmission, changes in spelling conventions and the natural urge to transform the obscure into the recognisable. Only the historical forms as they appear in the earliest documents are likely to reveal a place name’s ultimate derivation and meaning. All who hope to interpret place names must heed that warning, and verify the origin and meaning in authoritative reference books on place names.

This is a glossary of the elements, generic and qualifying, most frequently found in the place names are not included.

Each element is cited in:

  • its radical form;
  • any common dialectal variant;
  • its feminine form (in the case of an adjective);
  • its plural (if found in place names); and
  • its gender.

The meaning given is that which occurs in place names. Some elements occur only in place names and others are prefixes, suffixes or particles that modify or qualify place names. Two place names (with grid references) are cited in most cases as examples for each element.

Pronouncing the Welsh place names

Welsh pronunciation follows definite rules. Once the system has been mastered, you will be able to pronounce every word. Below are some consonants that differ from English pronunciations, followed by an example from a place name.


c always the k sound as in cat or kill never s as in city Conwy
ch always as the ch in the Scottish loch never as in lock or church Rhos-goch
dd always sounds like the th in breathe or then Rhuddlan
f always the v sound as in Venice and of Felindref
ff has the same sound as ph and the English off never the v sound Ffestiniog
g always hard as in get never sof as in gentle Garn
ll a voiceless l. Produce an l, but breathe out both sides of the tongue. Llanelli
ng has the sound of the English ng in singing
In a few exceptions, the ng is pronounced ng + g as in the English finger
In others, n and g are separate sounds as in Llangollen

r this is trilled like a strong Scottish r or as in Spanish and Italian Rachub
s same sound as the ss in moss or the s in sit never the z sound as in nose Dowlais
th has the same sound as the th in thin never as the th in the Bethesda


There are more vowels in the Welsh language than in English. They are of the kind often known as pure vowels, being more akin to those found in Spanish or Italian. They are never diphthonged as is often the case in English, which has to distinguish between can and cane. The forms in the square brackets that come after the letters are the symbols of the International Phonetic Alphabet.

a short [a] as in apple
long [a] as in father
e short [e] as in enigma
long [e] as in pin
i short [i]
long [i] as in machine
o short [o] as in not (never as in note)
long [o]
u as the first y in mystery
w short [u] as the oo in took
long [u] as the oo in moo
y has two sounds:
(i) In monosyllables and in the final syllable of a word, it has the same sound as u, as represented by the i in Brinton.
(ii)In other positions, it has the same sound as the u and the e in under.

The long forms of the vowels referred to above denote an elongated use of the short vowel sound. It is never a different sound. For example: the short form of w would be the equivalent of the oo in book. The long form would be the equivalent of the oo in moo.

The vowel is short in monosyllables occurring before the letters p, t, c, m, ng, or before a combination of two or more consonants. For example: cwm (valley); nant (brook); pen (top); marl (chalky clay); lloc (fold); cwt (hut, sty), and so on.

The vowel is long in monosyllabic words when it comes at the end or is followed by b, d, g, f, dd, ff, th, ch, s. For example: gwlad (country/region); lle (place); tre[f] (town/homestead); coch (red); de (south); rhos (moor/promontory); rhath (heath), llwch (dust), clos (yard), cloch (bell), and so on.

If a vowel is followed by an l, n, or r, it may be long or short – the long vowel being denoted by the circumflex sign (^). For example: dôl (meadow); lôn (road/lane); tŵr (tower); dâr (oak); pêr (sweet); mân (tiny/small).

The letters i and u are rarely circumflexed as they nearly always occur before l, n, r. For example: tir (land); min (side/edge/lip/brink); cul (narrow); mur (wall).

Long vowels are not circumflexed either in words in common use. For example: hen (old); llo (calf); cil (recess/corner/retreat); dyn (man).

Long vowels are used when a word can be pronounced with either a short or long vowel. For example: ar (on)/âr (ploughed); pin (pin)/pîn (pine); cor (dwarf)/côr (stall/crib).


Welsh words are usually stressed on the penultimate syllable – the last but one: Llanfair, Llanfairfechan.

Where the stress falls on the last syllable, a hyphen is usually inserted: Llan‑fair, Llan‑faes, Llanfair‑is‑gaer.

Exceptionally, some well established place names with stress on the last syllable are regularly written without the hyphen: Caerdydd, Maesteg.

In others, the circumflex accent will show the stress: Cwmbrân.

Mutations or consonant changes

In Welsh, under certain strict but constant conditions, consonantal change can occur at the beginning of words. Nine consonants can undergo change within three mutations – the Soft, the Nasal and the Aspirate.

Original letter p t c b d g ll rh m
Soft mutation b d g f dd - l r f
Nasal mutation mh nh ngh m n ng - - -
Aspirate mutation ph th ch - - - - - -

The following are a few simple rules:

(i) The first consonant of the second element of a compound word takes the soft mutation. For example:

  • Brith (coarse) + tir (land) becomes Brithdir (the t, as can be seen in the table, has changed to a d)
  • Pen (head/top/edge/end) + tref becomes Pen‑dre[f].
  • Pen + cam (crooked/bent) becomes Pengam.
  • Glas (green) + pwll (pit/pool) becomes Glasbwll.

(ii) The first consonant of a feminine singular noun is softened after the article namely – y or yr. For example:

  • Pen (head/top. edge/end) + y (definite article) + glan (river‑bank/hillock) becomes
  • Pen‑y‑lan.
  • Bron (hill/breast) + y + moel (bare/bald) becomes Bron‑y‑foel.
  • Pen + y + pont (bridge) becomes Pen‑y‑bont.
  • Pen + yr + gallt (hill/hillside/cliff wood) becomes Pen‑yr‑allt.

Sometimes the mutation is retained even when the article that initially caused it has been lost. For example:

  • Y + Celli (grove) becomes Gelli as in Gellilydan; Gelli Gandryll.

(iii) The initial consonant of an adjective softens when it follows a feminine noun singular. For example:

  • Rhyd (ford) + coch (red) becomes Rhyd Goch.
  • Felin (mill) + moel (bare/bald) becomes Felin‑foel.
  • Sarn (causeway) + pigog (spiny/prickly) becomes Sarnbigog.
  • Allt (hillside, cliff, wood) + coch becomes Allt Goch.
  • Carreg (stone/rock) + Llwyd (grey/brown) becomes Carreg Lwyd.

(iv) The first consonant of the second element of a compound word (that tells us who the first element of the word refers to) is often softened when the first element is a feminine noun singular.

The second element is in the genitive case and acts like an adjective. For example:

  • Tre (town/hamlet/homestead is a feminine singular noun) + Caron (name of a person) becomes Tregaron.
  • Llan (church/monastery) + Padarn (name of a saint) becomes Llanbadarn.
  • Llan + Daniel becomes Llanddaniel.

This sometimes occurs even though the first element is masculine. For example:

  • Tŷ (house) + Dewi (name of a saint) becomes Tyddewi.
  • Cae (field) + Dafydd (name of a person) becomes Cae Ddafydd.

(v) A few adjectives can be used before a noun. When this occurs they cause soft mutation. For example:

  • Hen (old) + plas becomes Henblas.
  • Hen + tre becomes Hendre.
  • Hen + ty becomes Hendy.

(vi) The initial consonant of a noun takes soft mutation when it follows a preposition such as ar (on/over), tan/dan (under), dros/tros (on/over). For example:

  • Pont (bridge) + ar (on) + Tawe (name of the river) becomes Pontardawe.
  • Pont + ar + Dulais (another river) = Pontarddulais.

(vii) The initial consonant of a noun following the preposition yn takes a nasal mutation. For example:

  • Llanfair + yn + deubwll becomes Llanfair yn Neubwll.
  • Llanfair + yn + Buallt becomes Llanfair‑ym‑Muallt.

Welsh place names glossary

Place names are made up of components which are referred to as elements. These elements are simply the words people used to describe a place or their response to their environment.

This is a glossary of the elements, generic and qualifying, most frequently found in the place names of Wales.

Each element is cited in its radical form, any common dialectal variant, its feminine form (in the case of an adjective), its plural (if found in place‑names) and its gender.

The meaning given is that which occurs in place names. Some elements occur only in place names and others are prefixes, suffixes or particles that modify or qualify place names.

Two place names (with grid references) are cited as examples for each element.


adj = adjective
adv = adverb
f = feminine
m = masculine
pl = plural
nf = noun feminine
nm = noun masculine
np = noun plural
pr = preposition
num = number

Element Meaning Examples
abad nm abbot Tirabad SO8741 Hafod-yr-Abad SJ1848
aber nm/f estuary, confluence, stream Aberystwyth SN5881 Llanaber SH6017
acer nf aceri, acrau pl acre Ddwy-acer SJ0364 Ty’n-yr-acrau SH5833
aderyn nm adar pl bird Brynyradar ST1675 Craig yr Aderyn SH6406
adwy nf gap, pass Craig-adwy-wynt SJ1253 Nant Adwy’r-llan SH8546
ael nf brow, edge Ael-y-coryn SJ1633 Aelybryn SN5872
aelwyd nf hearth Aelwyd-uchaf SJ0974 Aelwyd Brys SH9250
afallen nf apple-tree Afallenchwerw SN9854 Dolafallen SN9566
afon nf river Afon-wen SJ1371 Glanrafon SN6790
allt, gallt nf elltydd, alltau pl hillside, cliff, wood Allt-mawr SO0746 Alltwalis SN4431
am pr near, beside, around Amlwch SH4493 Henllan Amgoed SN1820
amlwg adj evident, visible, prominent Brynamlwg SN2214 Grwnamlwg SJ1515
angell nf offshoot, tributary, leg, wing, limb Aberangell SH8410 Afon Angell SH8111
anner, annair nf heifer Cwm Penanner SH9146 Dolpenanner SH9168
ar pr on, upon, over Hendy-gwyn ar Daf SN2016 Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr SN1745
ardd, ard nm hill, height Talardd SN4941 Pennard SS5688
argoed nf wood, grove Argoed ST1799 Twyn-yr-argoed SO4207
argae nm argaeau pl dam, mill-dam, embankment Rhydargaeau SN4326 Penyrargae SH3284
arglwydd nm -es nf lord, lady Waunarlwydd SS6095 Caer-arglwyddes SN6991
arian nm silver Carn yr arian SN9412 Fedw-arian SH9136
arth nm/f bear Aber-arth SN4763 Afon Arth SN4862
asgwrn nm esgyrn pl bone Mynydd yr Esgyrn SJ0818 Esgyrn SM9634
athro nm teacher, father confessor Caeathro SH5061 Pant Yr Athro SN3613
aur nm gold Bron-yr-aur SH7302 Llannerch-yr-aur SN8697
awel nf awelon pl breeze Morawel SN0843 Awelfryn SN4223
b- A word starting b may be a mutated form of a word starting p
bach adj small, little Dre-fach SN5045 Cwm-bach Llechryd SO0254
bach nf bachau pl nook, corner, bend in a river Bachau SH4383 Eglwys-bach SH8070
bachell nf bachell, bachellau pl corner, nook, angle Fachell SH9978 Fachell SH5466
bala nm narrow land between two lakes, outlet of a lake Bala SH9236 Brynbala SN5986
ban nf bannau pl peak, beacon Pen y Bannau SN7466 Rhydybannau SN5251
banc nm bank, hill, slope Bancyfelin SN3218 Pen-y-banc SN4037
bangor nf (ecclesiastical) settlement enclosed within a wattled fence Bangor SH5771 Bangor Teifi SN3840
banhadlen nf banadl, banal pl broom Cefn-banadl SN6462 Bronbanadl SN6469
banhadlog nf broom patch Maesbanadlog SN7067 Banhadlog SN9780
bannog adj high, horned, turreted Bron-Bannog SJ0352 Cefnbannog SJ0251
banw nm young pig Blaen Cwm Banw SO0722 Nant-y-banw ST4097
bar nm top, summit Crug-y-bar SN6537 Bryn-y-bar SH2875
barcud nm kite, buzzard Carreg y Barcud SM7724 Llwyn-y-barcud SN4109
bardd nm beirdd pl bard Llof-y-bardd SN8953 Cwrtbrynbeirdd SN6618
bargod nm boundary (eaves) Bargoed ST1499 Bargod Taf ST1098
batin, bating (see betin and so on)
baw nm dirt Pig y Baw SN0140 Bryn y Baw SJ1678
bedd nm beddau pl grave Beddgelert SH5948 Beddau ST0685
bedwen nf bedw pl birch Craigyfedwen SH7576 Berthyfedwen SN3441
bedwlwyn nm birch grove Bedwlwyn SJ2236 Bedwlwyncoch SN8823
beidr nf lane, path Penfeidr SN1750 Penyfeidr SM8726
beili nm beiliau pl bailey Beili SN3827 Beili-glas SO3010
bela, bele nm marten, wild beast Trebela ST4298 Clunbele SN3433
bendigaid adj blessed Llanfendigaid SH5605 Pontrhydfendigaid SN7366
berw nm rush of water Berw-ddu SN9602 Berw-uchaf SH4671
betin, beting, bietin, bieting nm pared and burnt land Cefn-betingau SN6601 Batingau SJ0658
betws nm chapel Betws Bledrws SN5952 Betws-y-coed SH7956
beudy nm cow-house Beudiau SN5549 Beudy-mawr SH3133
bid nm quickset hedge Carreg Fidwen SH6481 Twyn y Fidffawydd SO1102
blaen nm blaenau pl source of river or stream; Blaenau Ffestiniog SH7045 Blaengarw highland SS9092
blaidd nm wolf Cae’r-blaidd SN5133 Castell-y-blaidd SO1279
bod nm/f abode, dwelling Bodedern SH3380 Meifod SJ1512
bol, bola nm belly, swelling Rhos-y-bol SH4288 Cors-y-bol SH3784
bon nm stock, stump, base Bon-y-maen SS6895 Bon-yr-on SJ0646
boncen, boncyn (see poncyn, poncen)
braenar, branar nm, brynar nf fallow land Mynydd Branar SH8771 Braenarauduon SN7246
braich nm/f ridge, arm Pen-y-braich SJ0316 Braich Anelog SH1427
brân nf brain pl crow Cwm-brân ST2995 Llanfihangel Nant Brân SN9434
bras adj breision pl big, fat, rich Bryn-bras SH8543 Maen Bras SH9239
bre nf hill Pen-bre SN4201 Moelfre SH5186
brenin nm king Rhodiad-y-brenin SM7627 Plas y Brenin SH7157
brest nf hill-breast Brest Cwm-Llwyd SN7019 Brestbaily SN9838
brith adj braith f speckled; coarse Brithdir SH7719 Pontllan-fraith ST1896
briw nm (adj) broken, shattered Briwnant SH8402 Carn Briw SN0537
bro nf region; vale, lowland Llanbedr-y-fro ST0876 Rhyd-y-fro SN7105
bron nf bronnydd pl hill-breast (breast) Bronydd SO2245 Brongest SN3245
brwynen nf brwyn pl rush Brwynen SJ0321 Cwmbrwyn SN2512
brwynog nf place of rushes, marsh Brwynog SH7564 Brwynog SH3586
brych adj brech f speckled Brechfa SN5230 Llanfrechfa ST3193
bryn nm bryniau pl hill Bryn-berian SN1035 Llanbryn-mair SH8902
bryncyn nm hillock Bryncyn-felen SJ2019 Bryncyn-hydfa SH3847
buarth nm buarthau pl farm-yard; pen Buarth Berran SH5764 Buarth y Caerau SO0713
buches nf milking-fold (herd) Buches y Foelortho SJ0421 Fuches SN8489
budr adj dirty, mucky Nant Budr SH7435 Rhyd-fudr SN6567
bugail nm bugelydd, bugeiliaid pl shepherd Bugeildy SO1979 Tafarn-y-Bugail SN2546
bustach nm bustych pl bullock Nant y Bustach SN8153 Cwm Bustach SH8502
buwch nf buchod; (gwartheg) pl cow; cattle Cas-fuwch SN0229 Cwm y Fuwch SS9490
bwbach nm bogey, goblin Allt y Bwbach SN4528 Bryn Bwbach SH6236
bwch nm buck Castell-y-bwch ST2792 Craig-y-bwch SH6414
bwla nm bull Nantybwla SN3821 Alltybwla SN2642
bwlch nm bylchau pl gap, pass Bwlch-y-groes SN2436 Tan-y-bwlch SH6540
bwrdd nm table Bwrdd Arthur SH9667 Bwrdd y Rhyfel SJ1475
bychan adj bechan f, bychain pl little, tiny Morfa Bychan SH5437 Llanfairfechan SH6874
byr adj ber f short Byrgoed SH9837 Byrgwm SO2303
caban nm cottage, cabin Caban-coch SN9163 Caban SH3938
cadair nf seat, stronghold Cadair SJ0060 Penacader SN4436
cadarn adj strong, powerful Crucadarn SO0942 Twyn Cerrig-cadarn SN9438
cadno nm fox Carreg Cadno SN8715 Clo Cadno SO1116
cadw nm preserve, spinney Maes-cadw SJ0147 Coed Cadw SH5978
cae nm caeau pl field, enclosure Pen-y-cae SJ2845 Rhes-y-cae SJ1870
caer nf caerau pl stronghold, fort Caernarfon SH4862 Caerdydd ST1876
caeth adj & nm/f, caith pl captive Cricieth SH5038 Caethle SN6099
cafn nm ferry-boat Tal-y-cafn SH7871 Nant-y-cafn SN8107
cain adj fine, fair, beautiful; ridge Cilcain SJ1765 Pistyll Cain SH7327
calch nm lime, chalk Pen Cerrig-calch SO2122 Twyn Calch ST2699
caled adj & nm hard Sarn-y-bryn-caled SJ2105 Cae Caled SH4069
cam adj crooked, bent Pengam ST1597 Camros SM9220
camfa nf stile Nant Maes y gamfa SH8112 Camfa Derw SH6744
canol nm middle Y Felin Ganol SM8025 Tircanol SS6798
cantref nm hundred (territorial division) Cantref SO0525 Cantref ST2815
capel nm chapel Capel Curig SH7258 Capel Bangor SN6580
carn nf carnau pl heap of stones, tumulus Pen-y-garn SN5731 Aber-carn SN5731
carnedd nf/m, carneddau, carneddi heap of stones, tumulus Penygarnedd SJ1023 Bryncarnedd SN6082
carreg nf cerrig pl stone, rock Llanbadarn y Garreg SO1148 Cerrigceinwen SH4273
carrog nf torrent, fast-flowing stream Carrog SH7647 Dolgarrog SH7767
carrog nf brook Carrog SJ1143 Carrog SH7647
carw nm stag Gallt-y-carw SH7521 Cilcarw SN4912
cas nm castle Cas-bach ST2583 Croes Cas-lai SM9125
caseg nf cesig pl mare Afon Caseg SH6566 Llyn Caseg-fraith SH6758
castell nm cestyll pl castle; small stronghold; fortified residence Castell Nedd SS7597 Castell-Paen SO1646
cath nf cat Carreg-y-gath SH5765 Rhyd-y-gath SN2131
cau adj hollow; enclosed Caubwll SJ0171 Cwm Cou SN6264
cawl nm sea-kale (soup) Porthcawl SS8277 Heol-y-cawl ST0887
cawr nm -es f ceiri, cewri pl giant Castell Cawr SH9376 Barclodiad y Gawres SH3270
caws nm cheese Nant-y-caws SN4518 Cerrig Caws SH9556
ceffyl nm ceffylau pI horse Bryn Ceffyl SH7837 Allt y Ceffylau SH6747
cefn nm cefnydd pI ridge Cefn-brith SH9350 Cefn-coch SJ1351
cefnen nf ridge Cefnen SH8776 Cefnen Wen SH8854
cegid np hemlock Cegidfa SJ2211 Bryniau Ystumcegid SH5041
cegin nf kitchen Abercegin SH5972 Gegin SJ2752
cegyr np hemlock Cwm-cegyr SO2517 Dolycegyr SN9054
cei nm quay Ceinewydd SN3859 Cei Ystagbwll SR9995
ceiliog nm cock Caergeiliog SH3078 Croesyceiliog SN4016
ceirch, cyrch nm oats Bryn-ceirch SN4739 Cae-ceirch SH7719
ceisiad nm ceisiaid pl bailiff Nant-y-ceisiad ST2089 Llain Ceisiad SN1728
cell nf celloedd, cellau pl cell Gell-fain SN8432 Dolgellau SH7217
celli nf grove Y Gelli Gandryll SO2242 Pencelli SO0925
celynnen nf celyn pl holly tree Llwyncelyn SN4459 Trecelyn ST2197
celynnog, clynnog nf holly grove Clynnog SH4149 Ffridd Celynnog SH8019
cemais, (cemaes) nm from np bend in river or coastline Cemaes SH3693 Cemais Comawndwr SO3404
cennin np leeks Llanbedrycennin SH7569 Cilcennin SN5260
cerddinen, cerdinen nf cerddin, cerdin pl mountain-ash Blaencerdinfach SN3748 Bryn-Cerdin SN3848
cerwyn nf vat, pot-hole Foel Cwmcerwyn SN0931 Cwmcerwyn SS8390
cesail nf hollow Cesailgwm SH6921 Coed y Gesail SH8210
cest nf belly, swelling Porth-y-gest SH5637 Brongest SN3245
ceulan nf river bank Cwm Ceulan SN7090 Fforch Ceulan SN7520
ceunant nm ravine, gorge Pen-y-ceunant SJ0823 Mynydd Ty’n-y-ceunant SH7308
ch- A word starting ch may be a mutated form of a word starting c
chwaen nf piece of land, breezy, windy place Chwaen Bach SH3983 Chwaen-wen SH3682
chwilog nf land infested with beetles Chwilog SH4338 Chwilog Fawr SH4438
ci nm cŵn pI dog Tre-cŵn SM9632 Carnedd y Ci SJ0534
cigfran nf cigfrain pl raven Craig Nyth-y-gigfran SH6845 Cwmgigfran SN4519
cil nm ciliau pl retreat, recess, corner Llanycil SH9134 Ciliau Aeron SN5058
cilfach nf nook Gilfachreda SN4058 Y Gilfach-goch SS9889
cist nf chest Cist Cerrig SH5438 Gist Wen SO0621
cistfaen nm stone-chest Cistfaen SN8677 Cistfaen SH9938
clafdy nm hospital Clafdy SH3569 Rhyd-y-clafdy SH3234
clawdd nm cloddiau pl ditch, hedge Penclawdd SS5495 Clawddnewydd SJ0852
clegyr nm rock, cliff Clegyr-mawr SJ0549 Penclegyr SM7629
clip nm -iau pl precipice, crag, steep slope Clip SH6532 Clipiau SH4146
cloch nf bell Maenclochog SN0827 Clochfaen SN9078
clochydd nm sexton, parish clerk Dôl-y-clochydd SH7321 Bryn-y-clochydd SH8760
clog nf clogau pl crag, precipice Clogfryn SN4462 Carn Pen-y-clogau SN7118
clogwyn nm precipice, steep rock hanging on one side Clogwyn SH7217 Clogwynygarreg SH5553
clos nm yard before a house Clos SN1840 Closglas SN6424
clun nm meadow, moor Clunderwen SN1219 Cluncoch SN3732
clwt, clwtyn nm, clytiau pl patch Clwt-y-bont SH5762 Clwt SJ3245
clwyd nf clwydydd pl hurdle, gate Clwydygraig SO1624 Pentreclwydau SN8405
clyd adj sheltered Cwm-clyd SN6273 Lletty-clyd SN2737
cnap, cnepyn nm top, summit of hill, short sharp ascent Pen-y-cnap SN5121 Bryn-cnap SH9465
cnol nf hillock, knoll Twyn-y-gnol ST2296 Cnol Wen SN8260
cnwc nm hillock Cefn Cnwc SN7759 Pencnwc SN2222
cnwch nm hillock Cnwch-coch SN6775 Cefn Cnwcheithinog SN7549
coc, cocyn nm cociau pl tump, hillock Bryn-cocyn SH9968 Ffridd Cocyn SH6204
coch adj cochion pl red Penrhyn-coch SN6484 Bryn-coch SS7499
coeden nf coed pl tree Coed-elái ST0185 Coed-duon ST1797
coedlan nf copse, coppice, woodland glade, grove Coedlannau SN4648 Llannerch Coedlan SO0940
coetan nf quoit Carreg Coetan SN0639 Coetan Arthur SH3981
coetgae nm woodfield, field recovered from forest; palisaded enclosure Coetgae Du SO0316 Panwaun Pen-y-coetgae SN9000
collen nf cyll, coll pl hazel Cwrt y Gollen SO2317 Cyll SN9788
colomen nf dove Colomendy SJ3045 Moel Golomen SN7087
colomennod pl
colwyn nm whelp Bae Colwyn SH8678 Tregolwyn SS9475
comin nm comins pl common Comins-coch SN6182 Comin-y-garth SN9854
congl nf corner Congl-y-cae SH2133 Gongl-gam SH3471
copa nf crest, summit Copa Ceiliog SH8748 Copa Shôn SN7899
cored nf weir Pant-y-cored SO0432 Gored Goch SH5471
corlan nf sheep-fold Corlan Fraith SH6300 Corlannau SS7690
corn nf stall, crib Llanfihangel Rhos-y-corn SN5534 Corn y Fan SN9835
cornant nf brook Pantycornant SS9688 Cornant SN4952
cornel nf corner Plas-yn-cornel SH9366 Pwllcornel SN3742
coron nf crown Goron SO1094 Goron-ddu SO1896
cors nf corsydd pl bog Llan-gors SO1327 Y Gors-las SN5713
craf nm garlic Aber-craf SN8112 Crafnant SH6129
craig nf creigiau pl rock Craig-y-nos SN8415 Graig SH8074
crau nm piggery, sty; stronghold Llanfihangel-y-creuddyn SN6676 Pont Creuddyn SN5552
criafolen nf criafol pl mountain-ash Waun y Griafolen SH8129 Pant-y-griafolen SH9149
crib nf cribau pl crest, summit Cribyn SN5251 Cefn Crib SO2300
crin adj withered Cefn-crin SO0272 Cringoed SH8801
crochan nm cauldron Foel Crochan SH7610 Maes-y-crochan ST2383
croes nf cross Pen-y-groes SN5813 Tŷ-croes SH3472
croesffordd, croesheol, croeslon nf cross-roads Groesffordd SO0728 Ty’n-y-groesffordd SJ1359
crof nf, crofau pl crof Grof SH8104 Bryn-y-crofau SN7463
crug nm crugiau pl heap, tump Crug-y-bar SN6537 Yr Wyddgrug SJ2363
crwm adj crooked, bent Crymlyn ST2198 Crymych SN1833
crwth nm tump, hillock Cwmcrwth SN5724 Llwyn y Crwth SJ2000
cul adj narrow Cefn Cul SN8618 Esgair Gul SN8856
cut nm cutiau pl shed, sty Cutiau SH6317 Ffynnon Cut-y-geifr SH9833
cwar nm cwarrau pI quarry Pen y Cwar SN6308 Cwarrau-mawr ST1489
cwm nm cymau, cymoedd pl valley, dale Cwmcewydd SH8713 Cwmaman ST0099
cwmwd nm commote (territorial division) Mynydd Tir-y-cwmwd SH3230 Cefn Cwmwd SH4374
cŵn (see ci)
cwrn nm cyrn, cyrnau pl stack, peak, point Pencyrn ST0077 Trecyrn SN2426
cwrt nm court, yard Cwrtnewydd SN4847 Cwrt Henry SN5522
cwrw nm ale Pwll-y-cwrw SO0935 Bryn Cwrw SN0007
cyff, cyffyll nm stock, stump Y Gyffylliog SJ0557 Pont Rhyd-y-cyff SS8789
cyffin nm boundary, frontier Gyffin SH7776 Penisacyffin SJ0513
cyfrwy nm ridge between two summits (saddle) Pen y Cyfrwy SM7524 Carn Gyfrwy SN1432
cyfylchi nf circular fortress Gyfylchi SS8195 Dwygyfylchi SH7377
cyfyng adj narrow strait Cyfyng SH7753 Pont Gyfyng SH5245
cyll (see collen)
cymer nm cymerau pl confluence Rhydcymerau SN5738 Pentrellyncymer SH9752
cythraul nm devil Craig y Cythraul SJ2347 Cadair y Cythraul SH3964
cytir nm common Cytir SH8715 Cytir-bach SN2449
d- A word starting d may be a mutated form of a word starting t
dafad nf defaid pl sheep Carreg y Ddafad SN2751 Pantyddafad SN6768
dafadfa nf sheep-fold Dafadfa-isaf SN6821 Dafadfa Uchaf SN6921
daIfa nf pound Ddalfa SN8931 Cors y Ddalfa SH4147
dan (see tan)
dâr nf deri pl oak Aberdâr SO0002 Bwlch-y-ddâr SJ1622
das (see tas)
dau num dwy f two Aberdauddwr SN6954 Bryn-ddwy-nant SO2035
dd- A word starting dd may be a mutated form of a word starting d
deilen nf dail pl leaf Tir-y-dail SN6212 Castell y Dail SO0989
delw nf image Carnedd y Ddelw SH7070 Craig y Ddelw SS9298
deon nm dean Caerdeon SH6518 Cae’r Deon SH3385
derlwyn nm oak-grove Carregyderlwyn SN8070 Cefn Derlwyn SO9347
derwen nf derw pl oak Derwen-las SN7299 Derwen-gam SN4558
dibyn nm steep slope, precipice Dibyn Du SN7965 Cwm Pont-bren Dibyn SH8800
diffwys nm precipice, abyss Diffwys SJ0257 Llechwedd Diffwys SH8915
din nm hill-fortress Dinbych SJ0566 Caerfyrddin SN4120
dinas nm/f hill-fortress; city Dinas Dinlle SH4356 Pendinas SJ2251
diserth nm hermitage Diserth SJ0579 Dyserth SJ0579
disgwylfa nf place of observation, look-out point Twyn Disgwylfa SN9531 Disgwylfa SN5009
dôl nf dolau, dolydd pl meadow Dolbenmaen SH5043 Dôl-y-bont SN6288
dorglwyd (see torglwyd)
draenen nf drain pl thorn Draenen Pen-y-graig ST1783 Ffynnon-ddrain SN4021
draenllwyn nm thorn-bush Draenllwyn-du SN7051 Esgair Draenllwyn SN9294
draw adj yonder Heol-draw SO1820 Pen-draw SH5561
dreiniog adj thorny Bryndreiniog SJ0825 Domen Ddreiniog SH5903
drud nm drudion pl hero, fighter Cerrigydrudion SH9548 Cerrig Drudion SN6250
drum (see trum)
drws nm gap, narrow pass (door) Drws Gwyn SH7959 Drws-y-coed SH5453
dryll nm small piece of land Y Gelligandryll SO2242 Dryll SJ2646
dryslwyn nm bramble bush Dryslwyn SN5520 Dryslwyn SN6242
du adj duon pl black, dark Dulais SS6190 Ynys-ddu ST1892
dwfn, dyfn adj dofn f deep Dyfnant SO0260 Wernddofn SN2136
dwfr, dŵr nm water Erw-ddwfr SH7232 Llwyn-dwfr SN1023
dyffryn nm valley Dyffryn SS8593 Llanbedr Dyffryn Ceiriog SJ1459
dylif nm flood, deluge, torrent Dylife SN8694 Afon Dylif SH6144
dylluan (see tylluan)
-dyn fortified enclosure Taltreuddyn SH5825 Nant Creuddyn SN5550
dyrys adj wild, rough Cefndyrys SO0473 Fronddyrys SO1559
ebol nm ebolion pl colt Crug-ebolion SN2631 Llwynyrebol SN1326
efail (see gefail)
efwr nm cow-parsnip; yew Cyll Efwr SN3919 Dinefwr SN6122
eglwys nf church Yr Eglwys Newydd ST1580 Cwm-yr-eglwys SN0140
eiddew nm ivy Moel Eiddew SH8605 Llyn Eiddew-bach SH6434
eira nm snow Nant-yr-eira SH6808 Maeneira SH7267
eisingrug nm heap of bran or corn husks Eisingrug (Singrug) SH6134 Afon Eisingrug SH6234
eisteddfa nf seat, resting, place Eisteddfa SN799841 Cripiau Eisteddfa-fach SN8084
eisteddfod nf meeting-place, assembly Bryn Eisteddfod SH8076 Eisteddfod SJ2452
eithin np furze Talcen Eithin SH8343 Tir-eithin SS9781
eithinog nf furze patch, gorse land Twyn Eithinog SN8009 Bryn Eithinog SN7866
elor nf bier Bwlch-y-ddwy-elor SH5550 Elorgarreg SH9653
eos nf nightingale Bryn-yr-Eos SJ2840 Cileos SJ0825
ergyd nm/f cast; projecting spur of land Ergyd Isaf SS7988 Ergyd Uchaf SS8088
erw nf erwau pl acre Croes-erw SS8795 Erw Barfau SN7578
eryr nm eagle Gartheryr SJ1623 Foel Eryr SN0631
esgair nf long ridge Esgairgeiliog SO7506 Pant-yr-esgair SN6431
esgob nm bishop Plas-yr-Esgob SJ1061 Pigyn Esgob SH7651
esgyrn (see asgwrn)
ewig nf hire Rhyd Yr Ewig SH9343 Gwern-yr-ewig SH9631
f- A word starting f may be a mutated form of a word starting b or m
-fa (see ma)
ffald nf ffaldau pl sheep-fold, pound, pen, run Bancyn-ffald SM6922 Carn-ffald SM7528
ffarm (see fferm)
ffawydden nf ffawydd pl beech tree Ffawydden SO2525 Twyn y Fidffawydd SO1102
ffawyddog nf beech grove Ffawyddog SS9189 Ffawyddog SO2018
fferm nf farm Fferm-y-Capel SN1529 Fferm Felinfach SN5646
ffin nf boundary Ffos-y-ffin SN4460 Ffinnant SN9791
fforch nf bifurcation of streams, fork, shape of fields, etc Fforch Ceulan SN7520 Cilfforch SN4461
ffordd nf way, road Banc-y-ffordd SN4037 Pen-y-ffordd SJ3061
fforest nf forest, park Fforest-fach ST6296 Trefforest ST0888
ffridd, ffrith nf, ffriddoedd pl wood; mountain enclosure, sheep walk Bwlch-y-ffridd SO0695 Ty’n-y-ffridd SJ1130
ffrwd nf stream, torrent Gwenffrwd SO5306 Ffrwd-grech SO0227
ffwrnais, ffwrnes nf furnace Ffwrnais SN6895 Craig Ffwrnais ST2495
ffynnon nf, ffynhonnau pl spring, well Gwarffynnon SN5750 Llwynffynnon SN4038
fry pr above Neuadd-fry SO1622 Ty-fry ST4397
g- A word starting g may be a mutated form of a word starting c
gafl nf geifl pl fork Bwlch yr Eifl SH3645 Yr Eifl SH3644
gafr nf geifr pl goat Corngafr SN2722 Cae’r-geifr SH1628
gallt (see allt)
gardd nf gerddi, garddau pl garden; enclosure Yr Ardd-lîn SJ2615 Ardderfin SN3215
garth nm promontory, hill, enclosure Llanfihangel-ar-arth SN4539 Penarth ST1871
garw adj coarse, rough Blaengarw SS9092 Bryn Garw SN8077
gast nf bitch Cefngast SN9147 Cwm Gast SH8509
gefail, efail nf smithy Cefn-y-gefail SN7838 Efail-newydd SH3535
geirw np rush of waters, waterfall Pont Aber-Geirw SH7629 Geirw SN7727
genau nm pass, opening of a valley Llanfihangel Genau’r-glyn SN6286 Coedgenau SN9933
glais, nm/f brook Y Glais SN7000 Dulais SS6190
glan nf river-bank, hillock Glan-Clwyd SJ0573 Glan Adda SH5770
glas adj gleision pl green Glasallt-fawr SN7330 Bryn Glas SJ0877
glo nm charcoal, coal Nant-y-glo SO1910 Cwm-y-glo SH5562
glyn nm deep valley, glen Glyn-hir SN6415 Llanfihangel Glyn Myfyr SH9949
godre nm edge or foot of hill Godre’r-graig SN7507 Godreaman SO0100
gof nm smith Rhyd-y-gof-isaf SN5552 Bron-y-gof SJ0856
gofer nm rill, overflow of a well Gofer SH8472 Blaengofer SN3425
gogof (see ogof)
golau adj light, bright Alltgolau SN5125 Wernolau SN3617
gorffwysfa nf resting place Pengorffwysfa SH4692 Gorffwysfa SH2131
goror nm/f gororau, gororion pl boundary Gororion SN8773 Oror SJ0847
gorsedd nf tumulus, barrow, hillock Gorsedd SJ1576 Yr Orsedd SJ3657
graean nm gravel Graeanryd SJ2156 Bwlch y Graean SN3049
gris nm grisiau pl step Tanygrisiau SH6845 Esgair Gris SN8868
gro nm/f gravel; gravel hill Gronant SJ0983 Ro-wen SH7571
grof nf grofau pl crof Grof SH8104 Cefn Rof SJ0049
grug nm heath, heather Cefn-y-grug SO1664 Grugfryn SH8273
grwn nm ridge between two furrows, ridge in a field Grwnamlwg SJ1515 Grwn-oer SJ0218
gwaelod nm foot of hill, bottom Gwaelod-y-garth ST1183 Gwaelod SJ1416
gwair nm hay Llwyngwair SN0739 Pant-y-gwair SN6067
gwal nf gwaliau pl wall Rhos-y-gwaliau SH9434 Bryn-y-gwalia SJ1924
gwâl nf lair Gwal y Filiast SN1725 Gwal-yr-hwch SN5807
gwar nf ridge (nape of neck) Gwar-y-felin SN9335 Gwarallt SN5458
gwartheg np cows, cattle Cors y Gwartheg-llwydion SH8032 Dolgwartheg SN4661
gwas nm youth, servant Bryn-gwas SS5493 Ynysygwas SS7891
gwastad nm plain Gwastadannas SH6553 Gwastad-mawr ST2989
gwastad adj flat Gwastad SO2305 Gwastadfryn SH6709
gwaun nf gweunydd pl moor, mountain meadow, moor-land field Waunarlwydd SS6095 Abergwaun SM9537
gwden nf willow-tree, reeds Glangwden SN9688 Dolgwden SN9589
gweirglodd nf hay-field, meadow Gweirglodd-gilfach SH8926, Nantyweirglodd SN2332
gwely nm bed, resting-place, family land Gwely’r Misgl SS7880 Pen y Gwely SJ2133
gwen (see gwyn)
gwenith nm wheat Bryngwenith SS9682 Dolgwenith SN9887
gwerdd (see gwyrdd)
gwerfa nf cool spot on mountain side where cattle or sheep seek shade Werfa SS9194 Bwlch y Werfa SS9283
gwern, gwernog nf place where alders grow, swamp Cilgwern SO2414 Pengwern SJ0176
gwernen nf gwern pl alder tree Gwernaffield SJ2064 Gwernymynydd SJ2162
gwiber nf viper Carregwiber SO0859 Allt y wiber SN4628
gwig nf gwigau pl grove, wood Melin-y-wig SJ0348 Cefn-wig SN4761
gwinllan nf grove (vineyard) Marianywinllan SH6270 Winllan SJ2121
gwlad nf region Coed-y-wlad SJ2209 Cors-y-wlad SH4447
gwlyb adj gwleb f wet Gwlybycoed SH4689 Gelli-wlyb SN8824
gwndwn (see gwyndwn)
gwrach nf hag, witch Rhyd-y-wrach SN1619 Blaen-gwrach SN8605
gwreiddyn, gwraidd nm gwreiddiau pl root Gwreiddyn SH9474 Gwreiddiau SJ0419
gwrych nm (quickset) hedge Gwrych Bedw SJ1048 Hen Wrych SH9278
gwryd nm fathom Llangwryd-isaf SJ2337 Nantygwryd SH6856
gwter (see cwter)
Gwyddel nm Gwyddyl, Gwyddelod pl Irishman Gwyddel SH1425 Gwyddelwern SJ0746
gwydden, gwŷdd nf pl tree Llyn y Grinwydden SJ0206 Glanwydden SH8180
gwyddfa nf mound, tumulus Yr Wyddfa SH6054 Graig Trewyddfa SS6697
gwylfa nf look-out point Gwylfa Hiraethog SH9459 Foel Wylfa SJ1933
gwyn adj, gwen f, gwynion pl white Gaerwen SH4871 Bron-gwyn SN2843
gwyndwn, gwndwn mn grassland, lea Gwndwn SN4737 Gwndwngwyn SM9027
gwynt nm wind Tre-gwynt SJ0306 Moel y Gwynt SS8598
gwyrdd adj gwerdd f, gwyrddion pl green Dolaugwyrddon SN5546 Dolwerdd SN4924
gyrfa nf racecourse Llannerch-yrfa SN8355 Pant-yr-yrfa ST2593
hafn nf gorge, ravine Maeshafn SJ2060 Yr Hafnau SH9738
hafod nf summer dwelling Nant-yr-hafod SN8791 Hafod-dywyll SH6815
hafoty nm summer dwelling Hafoty SH8365 Hafoty’r Bwlch SH9116
haidd nm barley Maes-yr-haidd SN5630 Nant-yr-haidd SN9366
halog adj dirty, muddy Rhydhalog ST0279 Pwllhalog SJ0877
hardd adj fine, fair Pentre-hardd SN5907 Harlech SH5831
haul nm sun Bolahaul SN4218 Bron Haul SH9669
hebog nm/f hawk Moel Hebog SH5646 Mynydd Pwllyrhebog SS9691
helfa nf hunting-ground Dolhelfa SN9273 Helfa SH5857
heli nm brine Y Felinheli SH5267 Pwllheli SH3735
helygen nf helyg pl willow Llanfihangel Helygen SO0464 Brynhelygen ST0578
hen adj old Brynhenllan SN0039 Hendy-gwyn ar daf SN2016
hendre (f) nf winter dwelling, old home, permanent abode Capel Hendre SN5911 Hendre SJ1967
heol, hewl nf street, road Heol-las SS6998 Heol-y-cyw SS9484
hesgen nf hesg pl rush Cwm-hesgen SH7829 Nant Hesgog SN9168
hesgyn nm bog Penhesgyn SH5374 Ffridd Cwmhesgyn SH8742
hir adj long Ynys-hir ST0292 Pont-hir ST3292
hwch nf sow, swine Stryt-yr-hwch SJ3346 Gorsyrhwch SN6633
hwnt adj yonder Pentrehwnt SS9275 Tu-hwnt-i’r-afon SH8167
hwrdd nm hyrddod pl ram Cornhwrdd SN5402 Llwyn-yr-hwrdd SN2232
hydd nm hyddod pl stag Moel-yr-hydd SH6745 Penhydd Fawr SS8093
iet nf gate Iet-y-bwlch SN1628 Bwlch-yr-iet SN3021
is pr below, lower Bangor Is-coed SJ3945 Is-afon SH9131
isa(f) adj lowest Penisa’r-waun SH5563 Llangwryd-isaf SJ2337
isel adj low Nant Ffriddisel SJ1241 Ffynnon Isel SJ0421
iwrch nm iyrchod pl roebuck Nantiwrch SN7039 Pwlliwrch SH8301
l- A word starting l may be a mutated form of a word starting ll
lawnt, lawnd nf open space in woodland, glade Lawnt SJ0412 Lawnt SJ0465
llaeth nm milk Llaethbwlch SJ1116 Wernllaeth SN5165
llaethdy nm milk-house, dairy Blaenllaethdy SN0924 Pantllaethdy SN4942
llain nf lleiniau pl narrow strip of land Llainfachwen SH5649 Llain-lwyd SN2818
llam nm leap Llam Carw SH4593 Llam-march SO2111
llan nf church, monastery Llandudno SH7881 Llanelli SN5000
llannerch nf clearing, glade Llannerch-y-medd SH4184, Rhosllannerchrugog SJ2946
llawr nm level area, floor of valley Llawr-y-glyn SN9391 Llawr-y-cwm-bach SN7185
lle nm place, position Lle’r Gaer ST0587 Lle’r-neuaddau SN7584
llech nf llechau pl slab, stone, rock Benllech SH5182 Harlech SH5831
llechwedd nf hillside Cwmllechwedd SO1375 Llechwedd SH9512
lled nm & pr breadth; rather, almost, partly Lledfron SJ1120 Llednant SN9054
lleian nf nun Llanlleiana SH3894 Llan Lleian-wen SS6799
llethr nf slope Llethr SO0776 Esgair Llethr SN7254
llety nm small abode, quarters Bron-llety-Ifan SH6312 Cefn-Pen-llety SJ0336
llidiard, llidiart nm, >llidiardau, llidiartau pl gate Llidiart-cae-hir SJ1430 Llidiardau SN6374
llin nm/f flax Pant Llin Bach SH8163 Bryn-llin-fawr SH7729
llo nm lloi pl calf Nant Cwm-lloi SH9526 Nant-llo SN3452
lloc nm fold Lloc SJ1476 Lloc SH5861
llof nf high place (lof) Llof-y-bardd SN8953 Llofyddgleision SN9371
lluest nm shieling, cottage, hut Lluest SH9708 Lluest-wen SS8489
llwch nm llychau pl lake; dust Amlwch SH4493 Talyllychau SN6332
llwm adj lom f bare, exposed Cwm-llwm SH9962 Grinllwm SH7762
llwybr nm path Llwybr-hir SJ1275 Penllwybr SN4057
llwyd adj llwydion pl grey, brown; holy Pentre Llwyn-llwyd SN9654 Braich Llwyd SH6654
llwyfen nf llwyf pl elm Aberllefenni SH7709 Llwyfen SO1521
llwyn nm llwyni, llwynau pl grove, bush Llwyngwril SH5909 Llwyndyrys SH3741
llwynog nm fox Cwmllwynog SJ0706 Trwyn Llwynog SM8634
llydan adj broad Carreglydan SH3271 Cefn-llydan SO0696
llygad nm source of river or stream (eye) Llygad-y-cleddau SM9733 Llyn Llygad Rheidol SN7987
llygoden nf llygod pl mouse Heol Llygoden SO1729 Tre-pys-llygod SH8868
llym adj llem f sharp, acute Carreg Blaen-Llym SH6643 Carreg Lem SN8017
llyn nm/f lake Maes-llyn SN3644 Crymlyn ST2198
llynwyn nm pool, puddle; moat Bryn Llynwyn-ddwr SS9099 Llynwyn Glas SS9894
llys nm/f court, hall Henllys ST2693 Llys-y-frân SN0424
lôn nf lane, road Lôn-las SH4240 Lôn SO0267
m- A word starting m may be a mutated form of a word starting b
ma-, -fa nf plain, place Machynlleth SH7400 Gabalfa ST1678
mab nm meibion pl son Nantymab SN5322 Moel y Mab SJ2405
maen nm meini, main pl stone Rhyd-y-main SH8022 Pont-faen SN9934
maenol nf stone-built residence of chiefain of district; manor Maenol SN9583 Faenol-Broper SJ0174
maerdre(f) nf lord’s demesne Llanilltud Faerdref ST0886 Gwaralltyfaerdre SN4349
maerdy nm steward’s house, dairy Y Maerdy SS9798 Y Maerdy SJ3015
maes nm meysydd pl open field, plain Maes-glas ST3086 Maes-teg SS8591
magwyr nf (dry) stone wall, hedge; ruin Magwyr ST4287 Clwydyfagwyr SO0206
maharen nm, meheryn pl ram, wether Gellifaharen SN4143 Rhosmeheryn SN8971
main adj thin, narrow Gell-fain SN8432 Bylchau Rhos-fain SN7517
main (see maen)
march nm meirch pl horse, stallion Rhos-meirch SH4677 Drenewydd Gelli-farch ST4793
marchog nm knight, horseman Felindre Farchog SN1039 Marchogdir SN8826
marian nm holm, gravel, gravelly ground, rock debris Marian-glas SH5084 Marian Prysau SJ1274
marl nm marl, chalky clay Parc-y-marl SN0424 Gwern-y-marl SJ2268
mawn nm peat Rhos-y-mawn SH8566 Waun Mawn SN0834
mawnog nf peat-bog Mawnog SN7994 Pen Bryn-y-fawnog SH9527
mawr adj big, great Llanbadarn Fawr SN6080 Waunfawr SH5359
medd nm mead Nant-y-medd SN6150 Llanerchymedd SH4184
meillionen nf meillion pl clover Cwm Meillionen SH5648 Maes-meillion
melin nf mill Felin-fach SN5255 Melin-coed SH8160
melindref nf mill-town Felindre SO1836 Felindre SN7027
melyn adj melen f yellow Trefelen SN0721 Melynllyn SH7065
menyn, ymenyn nm butter Brynmenyn SS9084 Dolmenyn SN9649
merch nf daughter Afon Merch SH6352 Crugiau Merched SN7245
merddwr nm, merched pl stagnant water Merddwr SH8950 Banc y Merddwr SH8335
merllyn nm stagnant pool Merllyn SJ2668 Merllyn SJ1356
merthyr nm burial place, church Merthyr Tudful SO0506 Merthyr Cynog SN9837
meudwy nm hermit Ynysymeudwy SN7305 Porth Meudwy SH1625
mh- A word starting mh may be a mutated form of a word starting p
mign, mignen nf, mignedd pl bog, quagmire Migneint SH7842 Tal-y-mignedd SH5252
milgi nm greyhound Ffynnon Maen Milgi SJ0634 Ffynnon y Milgi SJ1251
miliast nf greyhound bitch Gwal y Filiast SN1725 Carnedd y Filiast SH6162
min nm margin side Minffordd SH5770 Minffrwd SJ0523
mochyn nm moch pl pig Mochdre SH8278 Crug-moch SN3333
moel adj bare, bald Nant-y-moel SS9392 Moelfre SH5186
moel nf bare hill Y Foel SH9911 Rhyd-y-foel SH9176
morfa nm marsh, fen Morfa Bychan SH5437 Morfa Nefyn SH2840
moryd nf estuary, channel Afon Foryd SH4457 Foryd SH4559
mur nm muriau pl wall Castell Tomen-y-mur SH7038 Mur Melyn SH1728
mwdwl nm stack, cock of hay Mwdwl-eithin SH9154 Pen y Mwdwl SH9266
mwnws nm refuse heap Rhiw Fwnws SO1653 Castell y Mwnws ST0280
mwyalch, mwyalchen nf blackbird Croes-y-mwyalch ST3092 Llechwedd-fwyalchen SH8627
mwyn nm ore, mine Rhandir-mwyn SN7843 Rhyd-y-mwyn SJ2066
mynach nm mynych, menych, mynaich pl monk Capel Coed-y-mynach SO3402, Ystradmynach ST1494
mynachdy nm monastic grange Trwynmynachdy SM6922 Mynachdy SN7995
mynachlog nf monastery Mynachlog-ddu SN1430 Mynachlog SJ2367
mynwent nf churchyard, cemetery Penyfynwent SH4388 Esgair-fynwent SN5334
mynydd nm mountain, moorland Penmynydd SH5074 Gwernymynydd SJ2162
n- A word starting n may be a mutated form of a word starting d
nant nf, nentydd, naint, nannau pl brook Nantyffyllon SS8592 Nant-glas SN9965
nant nm, nentydd, naint, nannau pl dingle, glen Nant-y-moel SS9392, Llanfihangel-y-pennant SH6709
neuadd nf hail Llety’r-neuadd SN4728 Llwyneuadd SN8824
newydd adj, newydd, newyddion pl new Castell Newydd Emlyn SN3040 Y Drenewydd SO1191
ng- A word starting ng may be a mutated form of a word starting g
ngh- A word starting ngh may be a mutated form of a word starting c
nh- A word starting nh may be a mutated form of a word starting t
noddfa nf/m refuge, shelter, sanctuary Braich y Noddfa SH1326 Caer Noddfa SN9696
nyth nm/f nest, inaccessible position Nyth-grug SO1760 Tap Nyth-yr-eryr SH9021
ochr nf side, slope Ochr Cefn SH8449 Ochr Fawr SN7455
odyn nf kiln Rhydodyn SN6334 Twynrodyn SO0505
oer adj cold, exposed Waun-oer SH7814 Cwm Oergwm SO0623
offeiriad nm priest Nantyroffeiriad SO0343, Nantyroffeiriad-fawr SO0343
ogof, gogof nf, ogofau, gogofau pl cave Bryn-yr-ogof SJ1956 Ogof Ddu SH8921
onllwyn nm ash grove Yr Onllwyn SN8310 Onllwyn SN8410
onnen nf onn, ynn pl ash-tree Trefonnen ST3483 Rhyd-yr-onnen SH6102
pabell nf pebyll pl tent, grove Babell SJ1573 Cilybebyll SN7404
pair nm cauldron Bryniau Pair SH8562 Nant-y-pair SN3422
pâl nm palisaded enclosure Penrhiwpâl SN3445 Pen-pâl SN5418
palmant nm paved way Penpalmant SJ0668 Pen-y-Palmant SJ0475
pandy nm fulling-mill Pandy SJ1935 Tonypandy SS9992
pant nm hollow, valley Pant-glas SH4747 Cwmsychbant SN4746
panwaun nf bog where cotton-grass Panwaun Pen-y-coetgae SN9000 Panwaun
panweunydd pl grows Pwll-gwellt SO0401
parc nm, parciau, parcau pl park, field, enclosure Penparcau SN5880 Cwm-parc SS9596
pedwar num pedair f four Pedair Onnen SS9778 Pedair-ffordd SJ1124
pelan nf knoll, hillock, tump;river bank, sea wall Pen-y-belan SJ1204 Belan SJ2004
pella(f) adj farthest Taipellaf SH9456 Ty Pellaf SH1121
pen nm pennau pl head, top; end, edge Pen-y-bont-fawr SJ0824 Penfro SM9801
penrhyn nm promontory Penrhyndeudraeth SH6139 Penrhyn-side SH8181
pentre(f) nm homestead, village Pentre-bach SN5547 Pentregwenlais SN6016
perfedd nm middle, midst Treberfedd SJ3012 Banc Cefnperfedd SO0984
perllan nf orchard Berllan SN1239 Berllandawel SN1727
perth nf perthi pl bush, brake, hedge Arberth SN1014 Berth-ddu SO0185
ph- A word starting ph may be a mutated form of a word starting p
pi nf piod pl magpie Pentre-piod SH8930 Llwyn-y-piod SN5103
pia nm magpie Llwynypia SS9993 Castell y Pia ST1190
pica adj pointed, sharp Bryniau Pica SN8066 Llan-pica SO2250
pig nf point Pig y Baw SN0140 Nant-y-big SH3025
pigyn nm point Pigyn Esgob SH7651 Pigyn Shon-Nicholas SN6635
pistyll nm spout, waterfall Pistyll SH3242 Tan-y-pistyll SJ0729
plas nm hall, mansion Plas Einion SJ1354 Plas-criafol SJ1131
plwm nm lead Nant Felin-blwm SJ1380 Gwaun Ynys-plwm ST0383
plwyf nm parish Blaen-plwyf SN5775 Blaen Plwyf Ystrad SN5753
poeth adj hot, burnt Cwmfelin-boeth SN1919 Coed-poeth SJ2851
ponc nf ponciau pl hillock, tump Pen-y-bonc SH2181 Bonc SJ1637
poncyn, poncen nm, nf small hillock Ponciau SJ2946 Clawdd Poncen SJ0744
pont nf bridge Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr SN1745 Bontnewydd SH4859
porchell, parchell nm, perchyll pl young pig Penporchell SH9967 Coed Wernporchell SH6371
porth nm gate, gateway Porth-y-rhyd SN5215 Porth-yr-aur SH4762
porth nf harbour, bay, landing-place, ferry Porthaethwy SH5572 Porthmadog SH5638
pren nm tree Prenteg SH5841 Coed-saithpren SN5223
prys(g) nm copse, brushwood Prys-mawr SH8630 Penprysg SS9682
pum(p) num five Llanpumsaint SN4129 Pumryd SH8719
’r (see y)
pwll nm pyllau pl pit, pool Llanfair Pwllgwyngyll SH5371 Glasbwll SN7397
r- A word starting r may be a mutated form of a word starting rh
rhaeadr nf waterfall Rhaeadr SN9768 Llanrhaeadr-yng-Nghinmeirch SJ0863
rhandir nm region, district, measure of land Rhandir-mwyn SN7843 Rhandir SH8371
rhedyn(n)og nf fern-brake Glynrhedynog SS9997 Rhedynog Bellaf SH4138
rhedynen nf rhedyn pl fern Rhedyn-coch SH4166 Brynrhedyn SH9764
rhestr nf row, series Rhestr Cerrig SN8078 Blaen Rhestr SN8469
rhingyll nm herald, beadle Castell-y-rhingyll SN5714 Ffynnon Ringyll ST1089
rhiw nf/m hill, slope Rhiwlas SH5765 Troed-y-rhiw SO0702
rhod nf wheel, orbit Rhod Isaf SM7023 Rhodmad SN5974
rhos nf rhosydd pl moor, promontory Rhosgadfan SH5057 Rhosnesi SJ3450
rhudd adj red, crimson Rhuddallt SH6718 Rhuddlan SJ0278
rhyd nf/m ford Rhydlydan SH8950 Pont-rhyd-y-fen SS7994
saer nm seiri pl crafsman Bryn Saer SJ2769 Glyn Saer SN8442
saeth nf saethau pl arrow Rhiwsaeth SJ0722 Bwlchysaethau SH6154
Sais nm Saeson pl Englishman Pant-y-Sais SS7194 Cae’r Sais SH2677
sant, san nm saint pl saint; monk Pumsaint SN6540 Llantrisant ST0483
sarff nf serpent Sarffle SJ1433 Ffynnon Sarff SH2931
sarn nf sarnau pl causeway Tal-y-sarn SH4853 Sarnau SN3150
serth adj steep Bryn Serth SO1410 Maen-serth SN9469
siambr nf chamber Siambr-wen SJ0723 Siambr-gerrig SJ1933
sigl, siglen nf quagmire Bwlch Siglen SH8313 Siglen SH7464
simnai, simdde nf chimney Porth Simdde SH1626 Cerrig Simdde SH7940
stent nm/f extent (land) Tir Stent SH7516 Cil Stent SH7960
sticil, sticill nf stile Pontsticill SO0511 Garn Pontsticill SO0511
stryd, stryt nf way, street Stryd SH2482 Stryt-cae-rhedyn SJ2660
swch nf ploughshare, triangular piece of land Swch-cae-rhiw SJ1335 Swch y Llan SH9348
swllt nm shilling Crug y Swllt SN1712 Garn-swllt SN6209
swydd nf seat, lordship, office Swyddffynnon SN6966 Rhos-swydd SO1264
sych adj dry Cwmsychbant SN4746 Sycharth SJ2025
tafarn nm/f tafarnau pl tavern Pentre Tafarn-y-fedw SH8162 Tafarnygelyn SJ1861
tafol np dock plants Tafolgraig SN6597 Tafolwern SH8902
tafolog nf place where dock grows Blaen-Tafolog SH8909 Tafolog SH8909
tail nm dung, manure Bryn Tail ST0989 Bryntail SN9187
tâl nm end, top Tal-y-bont SN6589 Talacre SJ1284
talar nf headland (of field) Troedrhiwdalar SN9553 Dalarwen SN7850
talch nm fragment, pounded grain Cefnbryntalch SO1796 Bryntalch SO1795
talwrn nm, talyrni, tylyrni pl bare exposed hill-side, open space, threshing floor, cockpit Talwrn SH4977 Talwrn SJ2947
tan, dan pr under, beneath Tan-y-fron SH9564 Tan-y-bwlch SH6540
tarren nf tarreni pl rocky tump Nant Tarren-fedw-ddu SN7893 Tarren Bwlch-gwyn SN8193
tarw nm teirw pl bull Crugtarw SN3734 Mynydd Tarw SJ1132
tas nf stack, rick Pen Tas-eithin SN5743 Y Das SO1932
teg adj fair Maes-teg SS8591 Llan-teg SN1810
telyn nf harp Rhyd-y-delyn Fawr SH5275 Caedelyn SN5806
tew adj thick, fat Cors Tewgyll SN1331 Llwyntew SN9428
th- A word starting th may be a mutated form of a word starting t
tir nm land, territory Tirabad SO8741 Brithdir SH7719
tlawd adj tlodion pl pauper, poor Tyddyn-tlodion SJ1753 Cae Tlodion SH5925
tom, tomen nf pile, muck-heap, mound, hillock Domgae SJ2719 Tomen y Meirw SJ1638
ton, tonnen nf/m, tonnau pl grassland (left unplowed), lea Ton-teg ST0986 Tonypandy SS9992
top nm top Top-rhiw-fawr SJ1117 Top-y-fron SJ2769
tor nm break, gap Tor Glas SO0319 Torbant SM8430
torglwyd nf door-hurdle, gate Maestorglwyd SO2137 Dorglwyd SN6500
traeth nm beach, strand, shore Malltraeth SH4068 Trefdraeth SN0539
trallwng, trallwm nm wet low-lying land Y Trallwng SJ2207 Trallwng SN9629
traws adj & nm cross, transverse Trawsgoed SN6773 Trawsfynydd SH7035
tref nf settlement, hamlet, town Tre-garth SH6067 Trefalun SJ3856
tri num tair f three Tri Chrugiau SN9343 Llantrisant ST0483
trindod nf trinity Llandrindod SO0561 Ffynnon-y-drindod SS9373
troed nm/f base, bottom, (foot) Allt Troed-y-rhiw SN5235 Troed-rhiw-cymmer SN7648
tros pr over Trosnant SO0425 Tros-y-waen SH5666
trum nm trumiau pl ridge Trum Gelli SH6501 Cefngeudrum SN7727
trwyn nm point, cape, (nose) Trwyn Bendro SM6923 Trwynhwrddyn SM7327
twlch nm tylchau pl tump, knoll Cefn-twlch SJ1000 Dôl y Twlch SN8074
twll nm tyllau pl hole, pit Twll-y-clawdd SH5073 Ty’n-Twll SJ1055
twmpath nm tump, hillock Waun Twmpath SN4602 Twmpath SO0743
tŵr nm tower Tre-tŵr SO1821 Twr SH2282
twrch nm tyrchod pl boar Twrch Fechan SN7819 Blaen-Twrch SN6849
twyn nm twyni pl hillock, knoll Twynrodyn SO0505 Pen-twyn ST5209
nm tai pl house Tŷ-croes SH3472 Pentre Tŷ-gwyn SN8135
tyddyn, ty’n, tyn nm small farm, holding Tyn-y-groes SH7771 Ty’n-y-ffridd SJ1130
tyle nm/f hill, ascent Maestyle SN5939 Mynydd Tyle-coch SS9396
tylluan nf owl Rhosdylluan SH8529 Cwmdylluan SN9588
tyno nm plain, meadow Tynohir SN7098 Gwern Tyno SH8477
tywarchen nf, tyweirch, tywyrch pl sod, turf Llyn-y-dywarchen SH5653 Penrhiwtywarch SN7144
tywyll adj dark, gloomy Tywyllnodwydd SH7102 Cildywyll SN2212
tywyn nm sandy-shore, sand-dune Tywyn SH7878 Llanfihangel-yn-nhywyn SH3176
uchaf adj upper, highest Felin-gwm-uchaf SN5023 Cwm Twrch Uchaf SN7511
uchel adj high Bonuchel SJ0857 Gelli-benuchel SN8005
uwch pr above, over Llanuwchllyn SH8730 Uwchmynydd SH1525
uwchlaw pr above Uwchlaw’r-coed SH6025 Uwchlaw’r-rhos SH4754
wtra nf lane Tynwtra SH8505 Tynyrwtra SJ0517
y, yr, ’r (definite article) the Y Ferwig SN1849 Bryn-y-maen SH8376
ychen nm ŷch pl ox Porthyrychen SH4693 Rhydyrychen SH8648
ymenyn (see menyn)
ymryson nm contention, disputed ground Rhos Ymryson SN4650 Esgair Ymryson SN8876
yn, ’n pr in Llansanffraid-yn-Elfael SO0954 Ty’n-y-cefn SJ0443
ynys nf ynysoedd pl island; holm, river-meadow Coed-yr-ynys SO1520 Ynys-las SN6092
ysbyty nm hospital, hospice Ysbyty Ystwyth SN7371 Ysbyty Ifan SH8448
ysgafell nf ledge, brow Ysgafell Wen SH6649 Tanysgafell SH6166
ysgallog nf full of thistles; place where thistles abound Pantysgallog SN9028 Dolysgallog SH8510
ysgawen, ysgaw nf elder-tree Comin Cwmysgawen SO0371 Tre-Ysgawen SH4581
ysgeifiog nf place of elder-trees Ysgeifiog SJ1571 Llanfihangel Ysgeifiog SH4773
ysgol nf ysgolion pl ladder, formation on mountain-side Ysgolion Duon SH6663 Craig-yr-ysgol SN9502
ysgol nf ysgolion pl school Ysgoldy SH4382 Tai’r-ysgol SS6997
ysgubor nf, ysguboriau pl barn Tyddyn-ysgubor SJ0040 Ysgubor Bach SH1628
ysguthan nf wood-pigeon Bryn Ysguthan SH9311 Nant Ysguthan SH9411
ysgwydd nf shoulder (of mountain) Ysgwydd Hwch SO0537 Ysgwydd-gwyn-isaf SO1200
ystafell nf chamber, hiding-place Ystafelloedd SM7923 Cwm Nant Ystafell SN7108
ystlys nf side, flank Ystlys-y-coed-uchaf SN5707, Ystlys-y-coed-isaf SN5606
ystrad nm valley, holm, river-meadow Ystrad Rhondda SS9895 Ystradgynlais SN7810
ystum nf/m bend Llanystumdwy SH4738 Ystumtuen SN7378
ywen nf yw pl yew-tree Careg-ywen SO0052 Llwynywen SN5363

​Further information and references

Top image: The Vale of Ffestiniog from Plas Tan-y-bwlch © David Purchase, Creative Commons via Geograph Project

Ordnance Survey has benefited from the skill and expertise of various experts in reviewing the previous material and preparing these Guides. In the case of the Welsh section they are Professor Hywel Wyn Owen and Gruffudd Prys of the University of Wales in Bangor. For the Gaelic, Scots and Scandinavian sections they are Dr Anke‑Beate Stahl, Dr Simon Taylor, Peadar Morgan and the Gaelic Names Liaison Committee.

See the collection of guides to place names in Britain:

Published: Nov 07, 2019 Edited: Mar 24, 2023

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