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The Welsh origins of place names in Britain

By OS Team

Published on 33 min read


The Welsh origins of place names in Britain

Find the original meanings of British place names that use Welsh source words with this extensive list of terms, along with pronunciation.

See also Scandanavian, Scots and Gaelic.

Copy and paste the grid references into OS Maps to see the location of each place.

Introduction to Welsh

Place names are made up of elements – the words people used to describe a place or their response to their environment. Place names can consist of a single generic element, usually a noun (Bryn, Talwrn or Dinas), but most place names comprise more than one element with a linguistic relationship between the elements. The generic can be qualified by:

  • an adjective (Bryn‑coch in Powys, SH7602);
  • an element defining the location in relation to a river (Brynaman);
  • an archaeological site (Bryn‑celli‑ddu);
  • a building (Bryneglwys in Denbighshire, SJ1447);
  • a person (Brynsiencyn in Isle of Anglesey, SH4867); or
  • vegetation (Bryncelyn)

Qualifying elements may, occasionally, precede the generic element (Gwynfryn in Wrexham, SJ2552). It is quite common for the definite article y to precede a place‑name (Y Bala, Y Waun, Y Trallwng).

Generic elements can be:

  • topographic, referring to features of the landscape; or
  • habitative names, describing the settlement in which people lived (tref, pentref and bod); or qualified by:
  • personal names (Tremadog, Pentremeurig, Bodorgan);
    • elements relating to size (Trefechan, Pentre‑bach, Bodfach);
    • elements relating to location (Tre’r‑ddôl, Pentre‑bont, Bodffordd); or
    • elements relating to adjacent building or feature (Trecastell, Pentre’r‑felin, Bodysgallen)

Ecclesiastical elements can loosely be described as habitative names, since many are combined with:

  • personal names, usually of saints (Llandudno, Betws Garmon, Capel Curig), or with
  • elements that specify a location (Llan‑faes, Betws‑y‑coed, Capel‑y‑ffin).

There are many pitfalls for the unwary, attempting to understand place names and indulging in the indiscriminate, uninformed and naïve interpretation of elements on the basis of the place names as they appear today. For example:

  • Swansea has nothing to do with swan or sea;
  • Hope is not connected with hope;
  • Caerdydd has no connection with dydd;
  • Ystradau is not dau;
  • Llai is not llai;
  • Tre‑saith is neither tre nor saith.

It is true that very many place names bestowed during the last two centuries do actually mean what they appear to mean. However, it is equally true that many place names are not what they seem, because of the passage of time, oral transmission, changes in spelling conventions and the natural urge to transform the obscure into the recognisable. Only the historical forms as they appear in the earliest documents are likely to reveal a place name’s ultimate derivation and meaning. All who hope to interpret place names must heed that warning, and verify the origin and meaning in authoritative reference books on place names.

This is a glossary of the elements, generic and qualifying, most frequently found in the place names are not included.

Each element is cited in:

  • its radical form;
  • any common dialectal variant;
  • its feminine form (in the case of an adjective);
  • its plural (if found in place names); and
  • its gender.

The meaning given is that which occurs in place names. Some elements occur only in place names and others are prefixes, suffixes or particles that modify or qualify place names. Two place names (with grid references) are cited in most cases as examples for each element.

Pronouncing the Welsh place names

Welsh pronunciation follows definite rules. Once the system has been mastered, you will be able to pronounce every word. Below are some consonants that differ from English pronunciations, followed by an example from a place name.


calways the k sound as in cat or killnever s as in cityConwy
chalways as the ch in the Scottish lochnever as in lock or churchRhos-goch
ddalways sounds like the th in breathe or thenRhuddlan
falways the v sound as in Venice and ofFelindref
ffhas the same sound as ph and the English offnever the v soundFfestiniog
galways hard as in getnever sof as in gentleGarn
lla voiceless l. Produce an l, but breathe out both sides of the tongue.Llanelli
nghas the sound of the English ng in singing
In a few exceptions, the ng is pronounced ng + g as in the English finger
In others, n and g are separate sounds as in Llangollen

rthis is trilled like a strong Scottish r or as in Spanish and ItalianRachub
ssame sound as the ss in moss or the s in sitnever the z sound as in noseDowlais
thhas the same sound as the th in thin never as the th in theBethesda


There are more vowels in the Welsh language than in English. They are of the kind often known as pure vowels, being more akin to those found in Spanish or Italian. They are never diphthonged as is often the case in English, which has to distinguish between can and cane. The forms in the square brackets that come after the letters are the symbols of the International Phonetic Alphabet.

ashort [a]as in apple
long [a]as in father
eshort [e]as in enigma
long [e]as in pin
ishort [i]
long [i]as in machine
oshort [o]as in not (never as in note)
long [o]
uas the first y in mystery
wshort [u]as the oo in took
long [u]as the oo in moo
yhas two sounds:
(i) In monosyllables and in the final syllable of a word, it has the same sound as u, as represented by the i in Brinton.
(ii)In other positions, it has the same sound as the u and the e in under.

The long forms of the vowels referred to above denote an elongated use of the short vowel sound. It is never a different sound. For example: the short form of w would be the equivalent of the oo in book. The long form would be the equivalent of the oo in moo.

The vowel is short in monosyllables occurring before the letters p, t, c, m, ng, or before a combination of two or more consonants. For example: cwm (valley); nant (brook); pen (top); marl (chalky clay); lloc (fold); cwt (hut, sty), and so on.

The vowel is long in monosyllabic words when it comes at the end or is followed by b, d, g, f, dd, ff, th, ch, s. For example: gwlad (country/region); lle (place); tre[f] (town/homestead); coch (red); de (south); rhos (moor/promontory); rhath (heath), llwch (dust), clos (yard), cloch (bell), and so on.

If a vowel is followed by an l, n, or r, it may be long or short – the long vowel being denoted by the circumflex sign (^). For example: dôl (meadow); lôn (road/lane); tŵr (tower); dâr (oak); pêr (sweet); mân (tiny/small).

The letters i and u are rarely circumflexed as they nearly always occur before l, n, r. For example: tir (land); min (side/edge/lip/brink); cul (narrow); mur (wall).

Long vowels are not circumflexed either in words in common use. For example: hen (old); llo (calf); cil (recess/corner/retreat); dyn (man).

Long vowels are used when a word can be pronounced with either a short or long vowel. For example: ar (on)/âr (ploughed); pin (pin)/pîn (pine); cor (dwarf)/côr (stall/crib).


Welsh words are usually stressed on the penultimate syllable – the last but one: Llanfair, Llanfairfechan.

Where the stress falls on the last syllable, a hyphen is usually inserted: Llan‑fair, Llan‑faes, Llanfair‑is‑gaer.

Exceptionally, some well established place names with stress on the last syllable are regularly written without the hyphen: Caerdydd, Maesteg.

In others, the circumflex accent will show the stress: Cwmbrân.

Mutations or consonant changes

In Welsh, under certain strict but constant conditions, consonantal change can occur at the beginning of words. Nine consonants can undergo change within three mutations – the Soft, the Nasal and the Aspirate.

Original letterptcbdgllrhm
Soft mutationbdgfddlrf
Nasal mutationmhnhnghmnng
Aspirate mutationphthch

The following are a few simple rules:

(i) The first consonant of the second element of a compound word takes the soft mutation. For example:

  • Brith (coarse) + tir (land) becomes Brithdir (the t, as can be seen in the table, has changed to a d)
  • Pen (head/top/edge/end) + tref becomes Pen‑dre[f].
  • Pen + cam (crooked/bent) becomes Pengam.
  • Glas (green) + pwll (pit/pool) becomes Glasbwll.

(ii) The first consonant of a feminine singular noun is softened after the article namely – y or yr. For example:

  • Pen (head/top. edge/end) + y (definite article) + glan (river‑bank/hillock) becomes
  • Pen‑y‑lan.
  • Bron (hill/breast) + y + moel (bare/bald) becomes Bron‑y‑foel.
  • Pen + y + pont (bridge) becomes Pen‑y‑bont.
  • Pen + yr + gallt (hill/hillside/cliff wood) becomes Pen‑yr‑allt.

Sometimes the mutation is retained even when the article that initially caused it has been lost. For example:

  • Y + Celli (grove) becomes Gelli as in Gellilydan; Gelli Gandryll.

(iii) The initial consonant of an adjective softens when it follows a feminine noun singular. For example:

  • Rhyd (ford) + coch (red) becomes Rhyd Goch.
  • Felin (mill) + moel (bare/bald) becomes Felin‑foel.
  • Sarn (causeway) + pigog (spiny/prickly) becomes Sarnbigog.
  • Allt (hillside, cliff, wood) + coch becomes Allt Goch.
  • Carreg (stone/rock) + Llwyd (grey/brown) becomes Carreg Lwyd.

(iv) The first consonant of the second element of a compound word (that tells us who the first element of the word refers to) is often softened when the first element is a feminine noun singular.

The second element is in the genitive case and acts like an adjective. For example:

  • Tre (town/hamlet/homestead is a feminine singular noun) + Caron (name of a person) becomes Tregaron.
  • Llan (church/monastery) + Padarn (name of a saint) becomes Llanbadarn.
  • Llan + Daniel becomes Llanddaniel.

This sometimes occurs even though the first element is masculine. For example:

  • Tŷ (house) + Dewi (name of a saint) becomes Tyddewi.
  • Cae (field) + Dafydd (name of a person) becomes Cae Ddafydd.

(v) A few adjectives can be used before a noun. When this occurs they cause soft mutation. For example:

  • Hen (old) + plas becomes Henblas.
  • Hen + tre becomes Hendre.
  • Hen + ty becomes Hendy.

(vi) The initial consonant of a noun takes soft mutation when it follows a preposition such as ar (on/over), tan/dan (under), dros/tros (on/over). For example:

  • Pont (bridge) + ar (on) + Tawe (name of the river) becomes Pontardawe.
  • Pont + ar + Dulais (another river) = Pontarddulais.

(vii) The initial consonant of a noun following the preposition yn takes a nasal mutation. For example:

  • Llanfair + yn + deubwll becomes Llanfair yn Neubwll.
  • Llanfair + yn + Buallt becomes Llanfair‑ym‑Muallt.

Welsh place names glossary

Place names are made up of components which are referred to as elements. These elements are simply the words people used to describe a place or their response to their environment.

This is a glossary of the elements, generic and qualifying, most frequently found in the place names of Wales.

Each element is cited in its radical form, any common dialectal variant, its feminine form (in the case of an adjective), its plural (if found in place‑names) and its gender.

The meaning given is that which occurs in place names. Some elements occur only in place names and others are prefixes, suffixes or particles that modify or qualify place names.

Two place names (with grid references) are cited as examples for each element.


adj = adjective
adv = adverb
f = feminine
m = masculine
pl = plural
nf = noun feminine
nm = noun masculine
np = noun plural
pr = preposition
num = number
abad nmabbotTirabad SO8741 Hafod-yr-Abad SJ1848
aber nm/festuary, confluence, streamAberystwyth SN5881 Llanaber SH6017
acer nf aceri, acrau placreDdwy-acer SJ0364 Ty’n-yr-acrau SH5833
aderyn nm adar plbirdBrynyradar ST1675 Craig yr Aderyn SH6406
adwy nfgap, passCraig-adwy-wynt SJ1253 Nant Adwy’r-llan SH8546
ael nfbrow, edgeAel-y-coryn SJ1633 Aelybryn SN5872
aelwyd nfhearthAelwyd-uchaf SJ0974 Aelwyd Brys SH9250
afallen nfapple-treeAfallenchwerw SN9854 Dolafallen SN9566
afon nfriverAfon-wen SJ1371 Glanrafon SN6790
allt, gallt nf elltydd, alltau plhillside, cliff, woodAllt-mawr SO0746 Alltwalis SN4431
am prnear, beside, aroundAmlwch SH4493 Henllan Amgoed SN1820
amlwg adjevident, visible, prominentBrynamlwg SN2214 Grwnamlwg SJ1515
angell nfoffshoot, tributary, leg, wing, limbAberangell SH8410 Afon Angell SH8111
anner, annair nfheiferCwm Penanner SH9146 Dolpenanner SH9168
ar pron, upon, overHendy-gwyn ar Daf SN2016 Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr SN1745
ardd, ard nmhill, heightTalardd SN4941 Pennard SS5688
argoed nfwood, groveArgoed ST1799 Twyn-yr-argoed SO4207
argae nm argaeau pldam, mill-dam, embankmentRhydargaeau SN4326 Penyrargae SH3284
arglwydd nm -es nflord, ladyWaunarlwydd SS6095 Caer-arglwyddes SN6991
arian nmsilverCarn yr arian SN9412 Fedw-arian SH9136
arth nm/fbearAber-arth SN4763 Afon Arth SN4862
asgwrn nm esgyrn plboneMynydd yr Esgyrn SJ0818 Esgyrn SM9634
athro nmteacher, father confessorCaeathro SH5061 Pant Yr Athro SN3613
aur nmgoldBron-yr-aur SH7302 Llannerch-yr-aur SN8697
awel nf awelon plbreezeMorawel SN0843 Awelfryn SN4223
b-A word starting b may be a mutated form of a word starting p
bach adjsmall, littleDre-fach SN5045 Cwm-bach Llechryd SO0254
bach nf bachau plnook, corner, bend in a riverBachau SH4383 Eglwys-bach SH8070
bachell nf bachell, bachellau plcorner, nook, angleFachell SH9978 Fachell SH5466
bala nmnarrow land between two lakes, outlet of a lakeBala SH9236 Brynbala SN5986
ban nf bannau plpeak, beaconPen y Bannau SN7466 Rhydybannau SN5251
banc nmbank, hill, slopeBancyfelin SN3218 Pen-y-banc SN4037
bangor nf(ecclesiastical) settlement enclosed within a wattled fenceBangor SH5771 Bangor Teifi SN3840
banhadlen nf banadl, banal plbroomCefn-banadl SN6462 Bronbanadl SN6469
banhadlog nfbroom patchMaesbanadlog SN7067 Banhadlog SN9780
bannog adjhigh, horned, turretedBron-Bannog SJ0352 Cefnbannog SJ0251
banw nmyoung pigBlaen Cwm Banw SO0722 Nant-y-banw ST4097
bar nmtop, summitCrug-y-bar SN6537 Bryn-y-bar SH2875
barcud nmkite, buzzardCarreg y Barcud SM7724 Llwyn-y-barcud SN4109
bardd nm beirdd plbardLlof-y-bardd SN8953 Cwrtbrynbeirdd SN6618
bargod nmboundary (eaves)Bargoed ST1499 Bargod Taf ST1098
batin, bating(see betin and so on)
baw nmdirtPig y Baw SN0140 Bryn y Baw SJ1678
bedd nm beddau plgraveBeddgelert SH5948 Beddau ST0685
bedwen nf bedw plbirchCraigyfedwen SH7576 Berthyfedwen SN3441
bedwlwyn nmbirch groveBedwlwyn SJ2236 Bedwlwyncoch SN8823
beidr nflane, pathPenfeidr SN1750 Penyfeidr SM8726
beili nm beiliau plbaileyBeili SN3827 Beili-glas SO3010
bela, bele nmmarten, wild beastTrebela ST4298 Clunbele SN3433
bendigaid adjblessedLlanfendigaid SH5605 Pontrhydfendigaid SN7366
berw nmrush of waterBerw-ddu SN9602 Berw-uchaf SH4671
betin, beting, bietin, bieting nmpared and burnt landCefn-betingau SN6601 Batingau SJ0658
betws nmchapelBetws Bledrws SN5952 Betws-y-coed SH7956
beudy nmcow-houseBeudiau SN5549 Beudy-mawr SH3133
bid nmquickset hedgeCarreg Fidwen SH6481 Twyn y Fidffawydd SO1102
blaen nm blaenau plsource of river or stream;Blaenau Ffestiniog SH7045 Blaengarw highland SS9092
blaidd nmwolfCae’r-blaidd SN5133 Castell-y-blaidd SO1279
bod nm/fabode, dwellingBodedern SH3380 Meifod SJ1512
bol, bola nmbelly, swellingRhos-y-bol SH4288 Cors-y-bol SH3784
bon nmstock, stump, baseBon-y-maen SS6895 Bon-yr-on SJ0646
boncen, boncyn(see poncyn, poncen)
braenar, branar nm, brynar nffallow landMynydd Branar SH8771 Braenarauduon SN7246
braich nm/fridge, armPen-y-braich SJ0316 Braich Anelog SH1427
brân nf brain plcrowCwm-brân ST2995 Llanfihangel Nant Brân SN9434
bras adj breision plbig, fat, richBryn-bras SH8543 Maen Bras SH9239
bre nfhillPen-bre SN4201 Moelfre SH5186
brenin nmkingRhodiad-y-brenin SM7627 Plas y Brenin SH7157
brest nfhill-breastBrest Cwm-Llwyd SN7019 Brestbaily SN9838
brith adj braith fspeckled; coarseBrithdir SH7719 Pontllan-fraith ST1896
briw nm (adj)broken, shatteredBriwnant SH8402 Carn Briw SN0537
bro nfregion; vale, lowlandLlanbedr-y-fro ST0876 Rhyd-y-fro SN7105
bron nf bronnydd plhill-breast (breast)Bronydd SO2245 Brongest SN3245
brwynen nf brwyn plrushBrwynen SJ0321 Cwmbrwyn SN2512
brwynog nfplace of rushes, marshBrwynog SH7564 Brwynog SH3586
brych adj brech fspeckledBrechfa SN5230 Llanfrechfa ST3193
bryn nm bryniau plhillBryn-berian SN1035 Llanbryn-mair SH8902
bryncyn nmhillockBryncyn-felen SJ2019 Bryncyn-hydfa SH3847
buarth nm buarthau plfarm-yard; penBuarth Berran SH5764 Buarth y Caerau SO0713
buches nfmilking-fold (herd)Buches y Foelortho SJ0421 Fuches SN8489
budr adjdirty, muckyNant Budr SH7435 Rhyd-fudr SN6567
bugail nm bugelydd, bugeiliaid plshepherdBugeildy SO1979 Tafarn-y-Bugail SN2546
bustach nm bustych plbullockNant y Bustach SN8153 Cwm Bustach SH8502
buwch nf buchod; (gwartheg) plcow; cattleCas-fuwch SN0229 Cwm y Fuwch SS9490
bwbach nmbogey, goblinAllt y Bwbach SN4528 Bryn Bwbach SH6236
bwch nmbuckCastell-y-bwch ST2792 Craig-y-bwch SH6414
bwla nmbullNantybwla SN3821 Alltybwla SN2642
bwlch nm bylchau plgap, passBwlch-y-groes SN2436 Tan-y-bwlch SH6540
bwrdd nmtableBwrdd Arthur SH9667 Bwrdd y Rhyfel SJ1475
bychan adj bechan f, bychain pllittle, tinyMorfa Bychan SH5437 Llanfairfechan SH6874
byr adj ber fshortByrgoed SH9837 Byrgwm SO2303
caban nmcottage, cabinCaban-coch SN9163 Caban SH3938
cadair nfseat, strongholdCadair SJ0060 Penacader SN4436
cadarn adjstrong, powerfulCrucadarn SO0942 Twyn Cerrig-cadarn SN9438
cadno nmfoxCarreg Cadno SN8715 Clo Cadno SO1116
cadw nmpreserve, spinneyMaes-cadw SJ0147 Coed Cadw SH5978
cae nm caeau plfield, enclosurePen-y-cae SJ2845 Rhes-y-cae SJ1870
caer nf caerau plstronghold, fortCaernarfon SH4862 Caerdydd ST1876
caeth adj & nm/f, caith plcaptiveCricieth SH5038 Caethle SN6099
cafn nmferry-boatTal-y-cafn SH7871 Nant-y-cafn SN8107
cain adjfine, fair, beautiful; ridgeCilcain SJ1765 Pistyll Cain SH7327
calch nmlime, chalkPen Cerrig-calch SO2122 Twyn Calch ST2699
caled adj & nmhardSarn-y-bryn-caled SJ2105 Cae Caled SH4069
cam adjcrooked, bentPengam ST1597 Camros SM9220
camfa nfstileNant Maes y gamfa SH8112 Camfa Derw SH6744
canol nmmiddleY Felin Ganol SM8025 Tircanol SS6798
cantref nmhundred (territorial division)Cantref SO0525 Cantref ST2815
capel nmchapelCapel Curig SH7258 Capel Bangor SN6580
carn nf carnau plheap of stones, tumulusPen-y-garn SN5731 Aber-carn SN5731
carnedd nf/m, carneddau, carneddiheap of stones, tumulusPenygarnedd SJ1023 Bryncarnedd SN6082
carreg nf cerrig plstone, rockLlanbadarn y Garreg SO1148 Cerrigceinwen SH4273
carrog nftorrent, fast-flowing streamCarrog SH7647 Dolgarrog SH7767
carrog nfbrookCarrog SJ1143 Carrog SH7647
carw nmstagGallt-y-carw SH7521 Cilcarw SN4912
cas nmcastleCas-bach ST2583 Croes Cas-lai SM9125
caseg nf cesig plmareAfon Caseg SH6566 Llyn Caseg-fraith SH6758
castell nm cestyll plcastle; small stronghold; fortified residenceCastell Nedd SS7597 Castell-Paen SO1646
cath nfcatCarreg-y-gath SH5765 Rhyd-y-gath SN2131
cau adjhollow; enclosedCaubwll SJ0171 Cwm Cou SN6264
cawl nmsea-kale (soup)Porthcawl SS8277 Heol-y-cawl ST0887
cawr nm -es f ceiri, cewri plgiantCastell Cawr SH9376 Barclodiad y Gawres SH3270
caws nmcheeseNant-y-caws SN4518 Cerrig Caws SH9556
ceffyl nm ceffylau pIhorseBryn Ceffyl SH7837 Allt y Ceffylau SH6747
cefn nm cefnydd pIridgeCefn-brith SH9350 Cefn-coch SJ1351
cefnen nfridgeCefnen SH8776 Cefnen Wen SH8854
cegid nphemlockCegidfa SJ2211 Bryniau Ystumcegid SH5041
cegin nfkitchenAbercegin SH5972 Gegin SJ2752
cegyr nphemlockCwm-cegyr SO2517 Dolycegyr SN9054
cei nmquayCeinewydd SN3859 Cei Ystagbwll SR9995
ceiliog nmcockCaergeiliog SH3078 Croesyceiliog SN4016
ceirch, cyrch nmoatsBryn-ceirch SN4739 Cae-ceirch SH7719
ceisiad nm ceisiaid plbailiffNant-y-ceisiad ST2089 Llain Ceisiad SN1728
cell nf celloedd, cellau plcellGell-fain SN8432 Dolgellau SH7217
celli nfgroveY Gelli Gandryll SO2242 Pencelli SO0925
celynnen nf celyn plholly treeLlwyncelyn SN4459 Trecelyn ST2197
celynnog, clynnog nfholly groveClynnog SH4149 Ffridd Celynnog SH8019
cemais, (cemaes) nm from npbend in river or coastlineCemaes SH3693 Cemais Comawndwr SO3404
cennin npleeksLlanbedrycennin SH7569 Cilcennin SN5260
cerddinen, cerdinen nf cerddin, cerdin plmountain-ashBlaencerdinfach SN3748 Bryn-Cerdin SN3848
cerwyn nfvat, pot-holeFoel Cwmcerwyn SN0931 Cwmcerwyn SS8390
cesail nfhollowCesailgwm SH6921 Coed y Gesail SH8210
cest nfbelly, swellingPorth-y-gest SH5637 Brongest SN3245
ceulan nfriver bankCwm Ceulan SN7090 Fforch Ceulan SN7520
ceunant nmravine, gorgePen-y-ceunant SJ0823 Mynydd Ty’n-y-ceunant SH7308
ch-A word starting ch may be a mutated form of a word starting c
chwaen nfpiece of land, breezy, windy placeChwaen Bach SH3983 Chwaen-wen SH3682
chwilog nfland infested with beetlesChwilog SH4338 Chwilog Fawr SH4438
ci nm cŵn pIdogTre-cŵn SM9632 Carnedd y Ci SJ0534
cigfran nf cigfrain plravenCraig Nyth-y-gigfran SH6845 Cwmgigfran SN4519
cil nm ciliau plretreat, recess, cornerLlanycil SH9134 Ciliau Aeron SN5058
cilfach nfnookGilfachreda SN4058 Y Gilfach-goch SS9889
cist nfchestCist Cerrig SH5438 Gist Wen SO0621
cistfaen nmstone-chestCistfaen SN8677 Cistfaen SH9938
clafdy nmhospitalClafdy SH3569 Rhyd-y-clafdy SH3234
clawdd nm cloddiau plditch, hedgePenclawdd SS5495 Clawddnewydd SJ0852
clegyr nmrock, cliffClegyr-mawr SJ0549 Penclegyr SM7629
clip nm -iau plprecipice, crag, steep slopeClip SH6532 Clipiau SH4146
cloch nfbellMaenclochog SN0827 Clochfaen SN9078
clochydd nmsexton, parish clerkDôl-y-clochydd SH7321 Bryn-y-clochydd SH8760
clog nf clogau plcrag, precipiceClogfryn SN4462 Carn Pen-y-clogau SN7118
clogwyn nmprecipice, steep rock hanging on one sideClogwyn SH7217 Clogwynygarreg SH5553
clos nmyard before a houseClos SN1840 Closglas SN6424
clun nmmeadow, moorClunderwen SN1219 Cluncoch SN3732
clwt, clwtyn nm, clytiau plpatchClwt-y-bont SH5762 Clwt SJ3245
clwyd nf clwydydd plhurdle, gateClwydygraig SO1624 Pentreclwydau SN8405
clyd adjshelteredCwm-clyd SN6273 Lletty-clyd SN2737
cnap, cnepyn nmtop, summit of hill, short sharp ascentPen-y-cnap SN5121 Bryn-cnap SH9465
cnol nfhillock, knollTwyn-y-gnol ST2296 Cnol Wen SN8260
cnwc nmhillockCefn Cnwc SN7759 Pencnwc SN2222
cnwch nmhillockCnwch-coch SN6775 Cefn Cnwcheithinog SN7549
coc, cocyn nm cociau pltump, hillockBryn-cocyn SH9968 Ffridd Cocyn SH6204
coch adj cochion plredPenrhyn-coch SN6484 Bryn-coch SS7499
coeden nf coed pltreeCoed-elái ST0185 Coed-duon ST1797
coedlan nfcopse, coppice, woodland glade, groveCoedlannau SN4648 Llannerch Coedlan SO0940
coetan nfquoitCarreg Coetan SN0639 Coetan Arthur SH3981
coetgae nmwoodfield, field recovered from forest; palisaded enclosureCoetgae Du SO0316 Panwaun Pen-y-coetgae SN9000
collen nf cyll, coll plhazelCwrt y Gollen SO2317 Cyll SN9788
colomen nfdoveColomendy SJ3045 Moel Golomen SN7087
colomennod pl
colwyn nmwhelpBae Colwyn SH8678 Tregolwyn SS9475
comin nm comins plcommonComins-coch SN6182 Comin-y-garth SN9854
congl nfcornerCongl-y-cae SH2133 Gongl-gam SH3471
copa nfcrest, summitCopa Ceiliog SH8748 Copa Shôn SN7899
cored nfweirPant-y-cored SO0432 Gored Goch SH5471
corlan nfsheep-foldCorlan Fraith SH6300 Corlannau SS7690
corn nfstall, cribLlanfihangel Rhos-y-corn SN5534 Corn y Fan SN9835
cornant nfbrookPantycornant SS9688 Cornant SN4952
cornel nfcornerPlas-yn-cornel SH9366 Pwllcornel SN3742
coron nfcrownGoron SO1094 Goron-ddu SO1896
cors nfcorsydd pl bogLlan-gors SO1327 Y Gors-las SN5713
craf nmgarlicAber-craf SN8112 Crafnant SH6129
craig nfcreigiau pl rockCraig-y-nos SN8415 Graig SH8074
crau nmpiggery, sty; strongholdLlanfihangel-y-creuddyn SN6676 Pont Creuddyn SN5552
criafolen nf criafol plmountain-ashWaun y Griafolen SH8129 Pant-y-griafolen SH9149
crib nf cribau plcrest, summitCribyn SN5251 Cefn Crib SO2300
crin adjwitheredCefn-crin SO0272 Cringoed SH8801
crochan nmcauldronFoel Crochan SH7610 Maes-y-crochan ST2383
croes nfcrossPen-y-groes SN5813 Tŷ-croes SH3472
croesffordd, croesheol, croeslon nfcross-roadsGroesffordd SO0728 Ty’n-y-groesffordd SJ1359
crof nf, crofau plcrofGrof SH8104 Bryn-y-crofau SN7463
crug nm crugiau plheap, tumpCrug-y-bar SN6537 Yr Wyddgrug SJ2363
crwm adjcrooked, bentCrymlyn ST2198 Crymych SN1833
crwth nmtump, hillockCwmcrwth SN5724 Llwyn y Crwth SJ2000
cul adjnarrowCefn Cul SN8618 Esgair Gul SN8856
cut nm cutiau plshed, styCutiau SH6317 Ffynnon Cut-y-geifr SH9833
cwar nm cwarrau pIquarryPen y Cwar SN6308 Cwarrau-mawr ST1489
cwm nm cymau, cymoedd plvalley, daleCwmcewydd SH8713 Cwmaman ST0099
cwmwd nmcommote (territorial division)Mynydd Tir-y-cwmwd SH3230 Cefn Cwmwd SH4374
cŵn (see ci)
cwrn nm cyrn, cyrnau plstack, peak, pointPencyrn ST0077 Trecyrn SN2426
cwrt nmcourt, yardCwrtnewydd SN4847 Cwrt Henry SN5522
cwrw nmalePwll-y-cwrw SO0935 Bryn Cwrw SN0007
cyff, cyffyll nmstock, stumpY Gyffylliog SJ0557 Pont Rhyd-y-cyff SS8789
cyffin nmboundary, frontierGyffin SH7776 Penisacyffin SJ0513
cyfrwy nmridge between two summits (saddle)Pen y Cyfrwy SM7524 Carn Gyfrwy SN1432
cyfylchi nfcircular fortressGyfylchi SS8195 Dwygyfylchi SH7377
cyfyng adjnarrow straitCyfyng SH7753 Pont Gyfyng SH5245
cyll (see collen)
cymer nm cymerau plconfluenceRhydcymerau SN5738 Pentrellyncymer SH9752
cythraul nmdevilCraig y Cythraul SJ2347 Cadair y Cythraul SH3964
cytir nmcommonCytir SH8715 Cytir-bach SN2449
d-A word starting d may be a mutated form of a word starting t
dafad nf defaid plsheepCarreg y Ddafad SN2751 Pantyddafad SN6768
dafadfa nfsheep-foldDafadfa-isaf SN6821 Dafadfa Uchaf SN6921
daIfa nfpoundDdalfa SN8931 Cors y Ddalfa SH4147
dan (see tan)
dâr nf deri ploakAberdâr SO0002 Bwlch-y-ddâr SJ1622
das (see tas)
dau num dwy ftwoAberdauddwr SN6954 Bryn-ddwy-nant SO2035
dd-A word starting dd may be a mutated form of a word starting d
deilen nf dail plleafTir-y-dail SN6212 Castell y Dail SO0989
delw nfimageCarnedd y Ddelw SH7070 Craig y Ddelw SS9298
deon nmdeanCaerdeon SH6518 Cae’r Deon SH3385
derlwyn nmoak-groveCarregyderlwyn SN8070 Cefn Derlwyn SO9347
derwen nf derw ploakDerwen-las SN7299 Derwen-gam SN4558
dibyn nmsteep slope, precipiceDibyn Du SN7965 Cwm Pont-bren Dibyn SH8800
diffwys nmprecipice, abyssDiffwys SJ0257 Llechwedd Diffwys SH8915
din nmhill-fortressDinbych SJ0566 Caerfyrddin SN4120
dinas nm/fhill-fortress; cityDinas Dinlle SH4356 Pendinas SJ2251
diserth nmhermitageDiserth SJ0579 Dyserth SJ0579
disgwylfa nfplace of observation, look-out pointTwyn Disgwylfa SN9531 Disgwylfa SN5009
dôl nf dolau, dolydd plmeadowDolbenmaen SH5043 Dôl-y-bont SN6288
dorglwyd (see torglwyd)
draenen nf drain plthornDraenen Pen-y-graig ST1783 Ffynnon-ddrain SN4021
draenllwyn nmthorn-bushDraenllwyn-du SN7051 Esgair Draenllwyn SN9294
draw adjyonderHeol-draw SO1820 Pen-draw SH5561
dreiniog adjthornyBryndreiniog SJ0825 Domen Ddreiniog SH5903
drud nm drudion plhero, fighterCerrigydrudion SH9548 Cerrig Drudion SN6250
drum (see trum)
drws nmgap, narrow pass (door)Drws Gwyn SH7959 Drws-y-coed SH5453
dryll nmsmall piece of landY Gelligandryll SO2242 Dryll SJ2646
dryslwyn nmbramble bushDryslwyn SN5520 Dryslwyn SN6242
du adj duon plblack, darkDulais SS6190 Ynys-ddu ST1892
dwfn, dyfn adj dofn fdeepDyfnant SO0260 Wernddofn SN2136
dwfr, dŵr nmwaterErw-ddwfr SH7232 Llwyn-dwfr SN1023
dyffryn nmvalleyDyffryn SS8593 Llanbedr Dyffryn Ceiriog SJ1459
dylif nmflood, deluge, torrentDylife SN8694 Afon Dylif SH6144
dylluan (see tylluan)
-dynfortified enclosureTaltreuddyn SH5825 Nant Creuddyn SN5550
dyrys adjwild, roughCefndyrys SO0473 Fronddyrys SO1559
ebol nm ebolion plcoltCrug-ebolion SN2631 Llwynyrebol SN1326
efail (see gefail)
efwr nmcow-parsnip; yewCyll Efwr SN3919 Dinefwr SN6122
eglwys nfchurchYr Eglwys Newydd ST1580 Cwm-yr-eglwys SN0140
eiddew nmivyMoel Eiddew SH8605 Llyn Eiddew-bach SH6434
eira nmsnowNant-yr-eira SH6808 Maeneira SH7267
eisingrug nmheap of bran or corn husksEisingrug (Singrug) SH6134 Afon Eisingrug SH6234
eisteddfa nfseat, resting, placeEisteddfa SN799841 Cripiau Eisteddfa-fach SN8084
eisteddfod nfmeeting-place, assemblyBryn Eisteddfod SH8076 Eisteddfod SJ2452
eithin npfurzeTalcen Eithin SH8343 Tir-eithin SS9781
eithinog nffurze patch, gorse landTwyn Eithinog SN8009 Bryn Eithinog SN7866
elor nfbierBwlch-y-ddwy-elor SH5550 Elorgarreg SH9653
eos nfnightingaleBryn-yr-Eos SJ2840 Cileos SJ0825
ergyd nm/fcast; projecting spur of landErgyd Isaf SS7988 Ergyd Uchaf SS8088
erw nf erwau placreCroes-erw SS8795 Erw Barfau SN7578
eryr nmeagleGartheryr SJ1623 Foel Eryr SN0631
esgair nflong ridgeEsgairgeiliog SO7506 Pant-yr-esgair SN6431
esgob nmbishopPlas-yr-Esgob SJ1061 Pigyn Esgob SH7651
esgyrn (see asgwrn)
ewig nfhireRhyd Yr Ewig SH9343 Gwern-yr-ewig SH9631
f-A word starting f may be a mutated form of a word starting b or m
-fa (see ma)
ffald nf ffaldau plsheep-fold, pound, pen, runBancyn-ffald SM6922 Carn-ffald SM7528
ffarm (see fferm)
ffawydden nf ffawydd plbeech treeFfawydden SO2525 Twyn y Fidffawydd SO1102
ffawyddog nfbeech groveFfawyddog SS9189 Ffawyddog SO2018
fferm nffarmFferm-y-Capel SN1529 Fferm Felinfach SN5646
ffin nfboundaryFfos-y-ffin SN4460 Ffinnant SN9791
fforch nfbifurcation of streams, fork, shape of fields, etcFforch Ceulan SN7520 Cilfforch SN4461
ffordd nfway, roadBanc-y-ffordd SN4037 Pen-y-ffordd SJ3061
fforest nfforest, parkFforest-fach ST6296 Trefforest ST0888
ffridd, ffrith nf, ffriddoedd plwood; mountain enclosure, sheep walkBwlch-y-ffridd SO0695 Ty’n-y-ffridd SJ1130
ffrwd nfstream, torrentGwenffrwd SO5306 Ffrwd-grech SO0227
ffwrnais, ffwrnes nffurnaceFfwrnais SN6895 Craig Ffwrnais ST2495
ffynnon nf, ffynhonnau plspring, wellGwarffynnon SN5750 Llwynffynnon SN4038
fry praboveNeuadd-fry SO1622 Ty-fry ST4397
g-A word starting g may be a mutated form of a word starting c
gafl nf geifl plforkBwlch yr Eifl SH3645 Yr Eifl SH3644
gafr nf geifr plgoatCorngafr SN2722 Cae’r-geifr SH1628
gallt (see allt)
gardd nf gerddi, garddau plgarden; enclosureYr Ardd-lîn SJ2615 Ardderfin SN3215
garth nmpromontory, hill, enclosureLlanfihangel-ar-arth SN4539 Penarth ST1871
garw adjcoarse, roughBlaengarw SS9092 Bryn Garw SN8077
gast nfbitchCefngast SN9147 Cwm Gast SH8509
gefail, efail nfsmithyCefn-y-gefail SN7838 Efail-newydd SH3535
geirw nprush of waters, waterfallPont Aber-Geirw SH7629 Geirw SN7727
genau nmpass, opening of a valleyLlanfihangel Genau’r-glyn SN6286 Coedgenau SN9933
glais, nm/fbrookY Glais SN7000 Dulais SS6190
glan nfriver-bank, hillockGlan-Clwyd SJ0573 Glan Adda SH5770
glas adj gleision plgreenGlasallt-fawr SN7330 Bryn Glas SJ0877
glo nmcharcoal, coalNant-y-glo SO1910 Cwm-y-glo SH5562
glyn nmdeep valley, glenGlyn-hir SN6415 Llanfihangel Glyn Myfyr SH9949
godre nmedge or foot of hillGodre’r-graig SN7507 Godreaman SO0100
gof nmsmithRhyd-y-gof-isaf SN5552 Bron-y-gof SJ0856
gofer nmrill, overflow of a wellGofer SH8472 Blaengofer SN3425
gogof (see ogof)
golau adjlight, brightAlltgolau SN5125 Wernolau SN3617
gorffwysfa nfresting placePengorffwysfa SH4692 Gorffwysfa SH2131
goror nm/f gororau, gororion plboundaryGororion SN8773 Oror SJ0847
gorsedd nftumulus, barrow, hillockGorsedd SJ1576 Yr Orsedd SJ3657
graean nmgravelGraeanryd SJ2156 Bwlch y Graean SN3049
gris nm grisiau plstepTanygrisiau SH6845 Esgair Gris SN8868
gro nm/fgravel; gravel hillGronant SJ0983 Ro-wen SH7571
grof nf grofau plcrofGrof SH8104 Cefn Rof SJ0049
grug nmheath, heatherCefn-y-grug SO1664 Grugfryn SH8273
grwn nmridge between two furrows, ridge in a fieldGrwnamlwg SJ1515 Grwn-oer SJ0218
gwaelod nmfoot of hill, bottomGwaelod-y-garth ST1183 Gwaelod SJ1416
gwair nmhayLlwyngwair SN0739 Pant-y-gwair SN6067
gwal nf gwaliau plwallRhos-y-gwaliau SH9434 Bryn-y-gwalia SJ1924
gwâl nflairGwal y Filiast SN1725 Gwal-yr-hwch SN5807
gwar nfridge (nape of neck)Gwar-y-felin SN9335 Gwarallt SN5458
gwartheg npcows, cattleCors y Gwartheg-llwydion SH8032 Dolgwartheg SN4661
gwas nmyouth, servantBryn-gwas SS5493 Ynysygwas SS7891
gwastad nmplainGwastadannas SH6553 Gwastad-mawr ST2989
gwastad adjflatGwastad SO2305 Gwastadfryn SH6709
gwaun nf gweunydd plmoor, mountain meadow, moor-land fieldWaunarlwydd SS6095 Abergwaun SM9537
gwden nfwillow-tree, reedsGlangwden SN9688 Dolgwden SN9589
gweirglodd nfhay-field, meadowGweirglodd-gilfach SH8926, Nantyweirglodd SN2332
gwely nmbed, resting-place, family landGwely’r Misgl SS7880 Pen y Gwely SJ2133
gwen (see gwyn)
gwenith nmwheatBryngwenith SS9682 Dolgwenith SN9887
gwerdd (see gwyrdd)
gwerfa nfcool spot on mountain side where cattle or sheep seek shadeWerfa SS9194 Bwlch y Werfa SS9283
gwern, gwernog nfplace where alders grow, swampCilgwern SO2414 Pengwern SJ0176
gwernen nf gwern plalder treeGwernaffield SJ2064 Gwernymynydd SJ2162
gwiber nfviperCarregwiber SO0859 Allt y wiber SN4628
gwig nf gwigau plgrove, woodMelin-y-wig SJ0348 Cefn-wig SN4761
gwinllan nfgrove (vineyard)Marianywinllan SH6270 Winllan SJ2121
gwlad nfregionCoed-y-wlad SJ2209 Cors-y-wlad SH4447
gwlyb adj gwleb fwetGwlybycoed SH4689 Gelli-wlyb SN8824
gwndwn (see gwyndwn)
gwrach nfhag, witchRhyd-y-wrach SN1619 Blaen-gwrach SN8605
gwreiddyn, gwraidd nm gwreiddiau plrootGwreiddyn SH9474 Gwreiddiau SJ0419
gwrych nm(quickset) hedgeGwrych Bedw SJ1048 Hen Wrych SH9278
gwryd nmfathomLlangwryd-isaf SJ2337 Nantygwryd SH6856
gwter (see cwter)
Gwyddel nm Gwyddyl, Gwyddelod plIrishmanGwyddel SH1425 Gwyddelwern SJ0746
gwydden, gwŷdd nf pltreeLlyn y Grinwydden SJ0206 Glanwydden SH8180
gwyddfa nfmound, tumulusYr Wyddfa SH6054 Graig Trewyddfa SS6697
gwylfa nflook-out pointGwylfa Hiraethog SH9459 Foel Wylfa SJ1933
gwyn adj, gwen f, gwynion plwhiteGaerwen SH4871 Bron-gwyn SN2843
gwyndwn, gwndwn mngrassland, leaGwndwn SN4737 Gwndwngwyn SM9027
gwynt nmwindTre-gwynt SJ0306 Moel y Gwynt SS8598
gwyrdd adj gwerdd f, gwyrddion plgreenDolaugwyrddon SN5546 Dolwerdd SN4924
gyrfa nfracecourseLlannerch-yrfa SN8355 Pant-yr-yrfa ST2593
hafn nfgorge, ravineMaeshafn SJ2060 Yr Hafnau SH9738
hafod nfsummer dwellingNant-yr-hafod SN8791 Hafod-dywyll SH6815
hafoty nmsummer dwellingHafoty SH8365 Hafoty’r Bwlch SH9116
haidd nmbarleyMaes-yr-haidd SN5630 Nant-yr-haidd SN9366
halog adjdirty, muddyRhydhalog ST0279 Pwllhalog SJ0877
hardd adjfine, fairPentre-hardd SN5907 Harlech SH5831
haul nmsunBolahaul SN4218 Bron Haul SH9669
hebog nm/fhawkMoel Hebog SH5646 Mynydd Pwllyrhebog SS9691
helfa nfhunting-groundDolhelfa SN9273 Helfa SH5857
heli nmbrineY Felinheli SH5267 Pwllheli SH3735
helygen nf helyg plwillowLlanfihangel Helygen SO0464 Brynhelygen ST0578
hen adjoldBrynhenllan SN0039 Hendy-gwyn ar daf SN2016
hendre (f) nfwinter dwelling, old home, permanent abodeCapel Hendre SN5911 Hendre SJ1967
heol, hewl nfstreet, roadHeol-las SS6998 Heol-y-cyw SS9484
hesgen nf hesg plrushCwm-hesgen SH7829 Nant Hesgog SN9168
hesgyn nmbogPenhesgyn SH5374 Ffridd Cwmhesgyn SH8742
hir adjlongYnys-hir ST0292 Pont-hir ST3292
hwch nfsow, swineStryt-yr-hwch SJ3346 Gorsyrhwch SN6633
hwnt adjyonderPentrehwnt SS9275 Tu-hwnt-i’r-afon SH8167
hwrdd nm hyrddod plramCornhwrdd SN5402 Llwyn-yr-hwrdd SN2232
hydd nm hyddod plstagMoel-yr-hydd SH6745 Penhydd Fawr SS8093
iet nfgateIet-y-bwlch SN1628 Bwlch-yr-iet SN3021
is prbelow, lowerBangor Is-coed SJ3945 Is-afon SH9131
isa(f) adjlowestPenisa’r-waun SH5563 Llangwryd-isaf SJ2337
isel adjlowNant Ffriddisel SJ1241 Ffynnon Isel SJ0421
iwrch nm iyrchod plroebuckNantiwrch SN7039 Pwlliwrch SH8301
l-A word starting l may be a mutated form of a word starting ll
lawnt, lawnd nfopen space in woodland, gladeLawnt SJ0412 Lawnt SJ0465
llaeth nmmilkLlaethbwlch SJ1116 Wernllaeth SN5165
llaethdy nmmilk-house, dairyBlaenllaethdy SN0924 Pantllaethdy SN4942
llain nf lleiniau plnarrow strip of landLlainfachwen SH5649 Llain-lwyd SN2818
llam nmleapLlam Carw SH4593 Llam-march SO2111
llan nfchurch, monasteryLlandudno SH7881 Llanelli SN5000
llannerch nfclearing, gladeLlannerch-y-medd SH4184, Rhosllannerchrugog SJ2946
llawr nmlevel area, floor of valleyLlawr-y-glyn SN9391 Llawr-y-cwm-bach SN7185
lle nmplace, positionLle’r Gaer ST0587 Lle’r-neuaddau SN7584
llech nf llechau plslab, stone, rockBenllech SH5182 Harlech SH5831
llechwedd nfhillsideCwmllechwedd SO1375 Llechwedd SH9512
lled nm & prbreadth; rather, almost, partlyLledfron SJ1120 Llednant SN9054
lleian nfnunLlanlleiana SH3894 Llan Lleian-wen SS6799
llethr nfslopeLlethr SO0776 Esgair Llethr SN7254
llety nmsmall abode, quartersBron-llety-Ifan SH6312 Cefn-Pen-llety SJ0336
llidiard, llidiart nm, >llidiardau, llidiartau plgateLlidiart-cae-hir SJ1430 Llidiardau SN6374
llin nm/fflaxPant Llin Bach SH8163 Bryn-llin-fawr SH7729
llo nm lloi plcalfNant Cwm-lloi SH9526 Nant-llo SN3452
lloc nmfoldLloc SJ1476 Lloc SH5861
llof nfhigh place (lof)Llof-y-bardd SN8953 Llofyddgleision SN9371
lluest nmshieling, cottage, hutLluest SH9708 Lluest-wen SS8489
llwch nm llychau pllake; dustAmlwch SH4493 Talyllychau SN6332
llwm adj lom fbare, exposedCwm-llwm SH9962 Grinllwm SH7762
llwybr nmpathLlwybr-hir SJ1275 Penllwybr SN4057
llwyd adj llwydion plgrey, brown; holyPentre Llwyn-llwyd SN9654 Braich Llwyd SH6654
llwyfen nf llwyf plelmAberllefenni SH7709 Llwyfen SO1521
llwyn nm llwyni, llwynau plgrove, bushLlwyngwril SH5909 Llwyndyrys SH3741
llwynog nmfoxCwmllwynog SJ0706 Trwyn Llwynog SM8634
llydan adjbroadCarreglydan SH3271 Cefn-llydan SO0696
llygad nmsource of river or stream (eye)Llygad-y-cleddau SM9733 Llyn Llygad Rheidol SN7987
llygoden nf llygod plmouseHeol Llygoden SO1729 Tre-pys-llygod SH8868
llym adj llem fsharp, acuteCarreg Blaen-Llym SH6643 Carreg Lem SN8017
llyn nm/flakeMaes-llyn SN3644 Crymlyn ST2198
llynwyn nmpool, puddle; moatBryn Llynwyn-ddwr SS9099 Llynwyn Glas SS9894
llys nm/fcourt, hallHenllys ST2693 Llys-y-frân SN0424
lôn nflane, roadLôn-las SH4240 Lôn SO0267
m-A word starting m may be a mutated form of a word starting b
ma-, -fa nfplain, placeMachynlleth SH7400 Gabalfa ST1678
mab nm meibion plsonNantymab SN5322 Moel y Mab SJ2405
maen nm meini, main plstoneRhyd-y-main SH8022 Pont-faen SN9934
maenol nfstone-built residence of chiefain of district; manorMaenol SN9583 Faenol-Broper SJ0174
maerdre(f) nflord’s demesneLlanilltud Faerdref ST0886 Gwaralltyfaerdre SN4349
maerdy nmsteward’s house, dairyY Maerdy SS9798 Y Maerdy SJ3015
maes nm meysydd plopen field, plainMaes-glas ST3086 Maes-teg SS8591
magwyr nf(dry) stone wall, hedge; ruinMagwyr ST4287 Clwydyfagwyr SO0206
maharen nm, meheryn plram, wetherGellifaharen SN4143 Rhosmeheryn SN8971
main adjthin, narrowGell-fain SN8432 Bylchau Rhos-fain SN7517
main (see maen)
march nm meirch plhorse, stallionRhos-meirch SH4677 Drenewydd Gelli-farch ST4793
marchog nmknight, horsemanFelindre Farchog SN1039 Marchogdir SN8826
marian nmholm, gravel, gravelly ground, rock debrisMarian-glas SH5084 Marian Prysau SJ1274
marl nmmarl, chalky clayParc-y-marl SN0424 Gwern-y-marl SJ2268
mawn nmpeatRhos-y-mawn SH8566 Waun Mawn SN0834
mawnog nfpeat-bogMawnog SN7994 Pen Bryn-y-fawnog SH9527
mawr adjbig, greatLlanbadarn Fawr SN6080 Waunfawr SH5359
medd nmmeadNant-y-medd SN6150 Llanerchymedd SH4184
meillionen nf meillion plcloverCwm Meillionen SH5648 Maes-meillion
melin nfmillFelin-fach SN5255 Melin-coed SH8160
melindref nfmill-townFelindre SO1836 Felindre SN7027
melyn adj melen fyellowTrefelen SN0721 Melynllyn SH7065
menyn, ymenyn nmbutterBrynmenyn SS9084 Dolmenyn SN9649
merch nfdaughterAfon Merch SH6352 Crugiau Merched SN7245
merddwr nm, merched plstagnant waterMerddwr SH8950 Banc y Merddwr SH8335
merllyn nmstagnant poolMerllyn SJ2668 Merllyn SJ1356
merthyr nmburial place, churchMerthyr Tudful SO0506 Merthyr Cynog SN9837
meudwy nmhermitYnysymeudwy SN7305 Porth Meudwy SH1625
mh-A word starting mh may be a mutated form of a word starting p
mign, mignen nf, mignedd plbog, quagmireMigneint SH7842 Tal-y-mignedd SH5252
milgi nmgreyhoundFfynnon Maen Milgi SJ0634 Ffynnon y Milgi SJ1251
miliast nfgreyhound bitchGwal y Filiast SN1725 Carnedd y Filiast SH6162
min nmmargin sideMinffordd SH5770 Minffrwd SJ0523
mochyn nm moch plpigMochdre SH8278 Crug-moch SN3333
moel adjbare, baldNant-y-moel SS9392 Moelfre SH5186
moel nfbare hillY Foel SH9911 Rhyd-y-foel SH9176
morfa nmmarsh, fenMorfa Bychan SH5437 Morfa Nefyn SH2840
moryd nfestuary, channelAfon Foryd SH4457 Foryd SH4559
mur nm muriau plwallCastell Tomen-y-mur SH7038 Mur Melyn SH1728
mwdwl nmstack, cock of hayMwdwl-eithin SH9154 Pen y Mwdwl SH9266
mwnws nmrefuse heapRhiw Fwnws SO1653 Castell y Mwnws ST0280
mwyalch, mwyalchen nfblackbirdCroes-y-mwyalch ST3092 Llechwedd-fwyalchen SH8627
mwyn nmore, mineRhandir-mwyn SN7843 Rhyd-y-mwyn SJ2066
mynach nm mynych, menych, mynaich plmonkCapel Coed-y-mynach SO3402, Ystradmynach ST1494
mynachdy nmmonastic grangeTrwynmynachdy SM6922 Mynachdy SN7995
mynachlog nfmonasteryMynachlog-ddu SN1430 Mynachlog SJ2367
mynwent nfchurchyard, cemeteryPenyfynwent SH4388 Esgair-fynwent SN5334
mynydd nmmountain, moorlandPenmynydd SH5074 Gwernymynydd SJ2162
n-A word starting n may be a mutated form of a word starting d
nant nf, nentydd, naint, nannau plbrookNantyffyllon SS8592 Nant-glas SN9965
nant nm, nentydd, naint, nannau pldingle, glenNant-y-moel SS9392, Llanfihangel-y-pennant SH6709
neuadd nfhailLlety’r-neuadd SN4728 Llwyneuadd SN8824
newydd adj, newydd, newyddion plnewCastell Newydd Emlyn SN3040 Y Drenewydd SO1191
ng-A word starting ng may be a mutated form of a word starting g
ngh-A word starting ngh may be a mutated form of a word starting c
nh-A word starting nh may be a mutated form of a word starting t
noddfa nf/mrefuge, shelter, sanctuaryBraich y Noddfa SH1326 Caer Noddfa SN9696
nyth nm/fnest, inaccessible positionNyth-grug SO1760 Tap Nyth-yr-eryr SH9021
ochr nfside, slopeOchr Cefn SH8449 Ochr Fawr SN7455
odyn nfkilnRhydodyn SN6334 Twynrodyn SO0505
oer adjcold, exposedWaun-oer SH7814 Cwm Oergwm SO0623
offeiriad nmpriestNantyroffeiriad SO0343, Nantyroffeiriad-fawr SO0343
ogof, gogof nf, ogofau, gogofau plcaveBryn-yr-ogof SJ1956 Ogof Ddu SH8921
onllwyn nmash groveYr Onllwyn SN8310 Onllwyn SN8410
onnen nf onn, ynn plash-treeTrefonnen ST3483 Rhyd-yr-onnen SH6102
pabell nf pebyll pltent, groveBabell SJ1573 Cilybebyll SN7404
pair nmcauldronBryniau Pair SH8562 Nant-y-pair SN3422
pâl nmpalisaded enclosurePenrhiwpâl SN3445 Pen-pâl SN5418
palmant nmpaved wayPenpalmant SJ0668 Pen-y-Palmant SJ0475
pandy nmfulling-millPandy SJ1935 Tonypandy SS9992
pant nmhollow, valleyPant-glas SH4747 Cwmsychbant SN4746
panwaun nfbog where cotton-grassPanwaun Pen-y-coetgae SN9000 Panwaun
panweunydd plgrowsPwll-gwellt SO0401
parc nm, parciau, parcau plpark, field, enclosurePenparcau SN5880 Cwm-parc SS9596
pedwar num pedair ffourPedair Onnen SS9778 Pedair-ffordd SJ1124
pelan nfknoll, hillock, tump;river bank, sea wallPen-y-belan SJ1204 Belan SJ2004
pella(f) adjfarthestTaipellaf SH9456 Ty Pellaf SH1121
pen nm pennau plhead, top; end, edgePen-y-bont-fawr SJ0824 Penfro SM9801
penrhyn nmpromontoryPenrhyndeudraeth SH6139 Penrhyn-side SH8181
pentre(f) nmhomestead, villagePentre-bach SN5547 Pentregwenlais SN6016
perfedd nmmiddle, midstTreberfedd SJ3012 Banc Cefnperfedd SO0984
perllan nforchardBerllan SN1239 Berllandawel SN1727
perth nf perthi plbush, brake, hedgeArberth SN1014 Berth-ddu SO0185
ph-A word starting ph may be a mutated form of a word starting p
pi nf piod plmagpiePentre-piod SH8930 Llwyn-y-piod SN5103
pia nmmagpieLlwynypia SS9993 Castell y Pia ST1190
pica adjpointed, sharpBryniau Pica SN8066 Llan-pica SO2250
pig nfpointPig y Baw SN0140 Nant-y-big SH3025
pigyn nmpointPigyn Esgob SH7651 Pigyn Shon-Nicholas SN6635
pistyll nmspout, waterfallPistyll SH3242 Tan-y-pistyll SJ0729
plas nmhall, mansionPlas Einion SJ1354 Plas-criafol SJ1131
plwm nmleadNant Felin-blwm SJ1380 Gwaun Ynys-plwm ST0383
plwyf nmparishBlaen-plwyf SN5775 Blaen Plwyf Ystrad SN5753
poeth adjhot, burntCwmfelin-boeth SN1919 Coed-poeth SJ2851
ponc nf ponciau plhillock, tumpPen-y-bonc SH2181 Bonc SJ1637
poncyn, poncen nm, nfsmall hillockPonciau SJ2946 Clawdd Poncen SJ0744
pont nfbridgePen-y-bont ar Ogwr SN1745 Bontnewydd SH4859
porchell, parchell nm, perchyll plyoung pigPenporchell SH9967 Coed Wernporchell SH6371
porth nmgate, gatewayPorth-y-rhyd SN5215 Porth-yr-aur SH4762
porth nfharbour, bay, landing-place, ferryPorthaethwy SH5572 Porthmadog SH5638
pren nmtreePrenteg SH5841 Coed-saithpren SN5223
prys(g) nmcopse, brushwoodPrys-mawr SH8630 Penprysg SS9682
pum(p) numfiveLlanpumsaint SN4129 Pumryd SH8719
’r (see y)
pwll nm pyllau plpit, poolLlanfair Pwllgwyngyll SH5371 Glasbwll SN7397
r-A word starting r may be a mutated form of a word starting rh
rhaeadr nfwaterfallRhaeadr SN9768 Llanrhaeadr-yng-Nghinmeirch SJ0863
rhandir nmregion, district, measure of landRhandir-mwyn SN7843 Rhandir SH8371
rhedyn(n)og nffern-brakeGlynrhedynog SS9997 Rhedynog Bellaf SH4138
rhedynen nf rhedyn plfernRhedyn-coch SH4166 Brynrhedyn SH9764
rhestr nfrow, seriesRhestr Cerrig SN8078 Blaen Rhestr SN8469
rhingyll nmherald, beadleCastell-y-rhingyll SN5714 Ffynnon Ringyll ST1089
rhiw nf/mhill, slopeRhiwlas SH5765 Troed-y-rhiw SO0702
rhod nfwheel, orbitRhod Isaf SM7023 Rhodmad SN5974
rhos nf rhosydd plmoor, promontoryRhosgadfan SH5057 Rhosnesi SJ3450
rhudd adjred, crimsonRhuddallt SH6718 Rhuddlan SJ0278
rhyd nf/mfordRhydlydan SH8950 Pont-rhyd-y-fen SS7994
saer nm seiri plcrafsmanBryn Saer SJ2769 Glyn Saer SN8442
saeth nf saethau plarrowRhiwsaeth SJ0722 Bwlchysaethau SH6154
Sais nm Saeson plEnglishmanPant-y-Sais SS7194 Cae’r Sais SH2677
sant, san nm saint plsaint; monkPumsaint SN6540 Llantrisant ST0483
sarff nfserpentSarffle SJ1433 Ffynnon Sarff SH2931
sarn nf sarnau plcausewayTal-y-sarn SH4853 Sarnau SN3150
serth adjsteepBryn Serth SO1410 Maen-serth SN9469
siambr nfchamberSiambr-wen SJ0723 Siambr-gerrig SJ1933
sigl, siglen nfquagmireBwlch Siglen SH8313 Siglen SH7464
simnai, simdde nfchimneyPorth Simdde SH1626 Cerrig Simdde SH7940
stent nm/fextent (land)Tir Stent SH7516 Cil Stent SH7960
sticil, sticill nfstilePontsticill SO0511 Garn Pontsticill SO0511
stryd, stryt nfway, streetStryd SH2482 Stryt-cae-rhedyn SJ2660
swch nfploughshare, triangular piece of landSwch-cae-rhiw SJ1335 Swch y Llan SH9348
swllt nmshillingCrug y Swllt SN1712 Garn-swllt SN6209
swydd nfseat, lordship, officeSwyddffynnon SN6966 Rhos-swydd SO1264
sych adjdryCwmsychbant SN4746 Sycharth SJ2025
tafarn nm/f tafarnau pltavernPentre Tafarn-y-fedw SH8162 Tafarnygelyn SJ1861
tafol npdock plantsTafolgraig SN6597 Tafolwern SH8902
tafolog nfplace where dock growsBlaen-Tafolog SH8909 Tafolog SH8909
tail nmdung, manureBryn Tail ST0989 Bryntail SN9187
tâl nmend, topTal-y-bont SN6589 Talacre SJ1284
talar nfheadland (of field)Troedrhiwdalar SN9553 Dalarwen SN7850
talch nmfragment, pounded grainCefnbryntalch SO1796 Bryntalch SO1795
talwrn nm, talyrni, tylyrni plbare exposed hill-side, open space, threshing floor, cockpitTalwrn SH4977 Talwrn SJ2947
tan, dan prunder, beneathTan-y-fron SH9564 Tan-y-bwlch SH6540
tarren nf tarreni plrocky tumpNant Tarren-fedw-ddu SN7893 Tarren Bwlch-gwyn SN8193
tarw nm teirw plbullCrugtarw SN3734 Mynydd Tarw SJ1132
tas nfstack, rickPen Tas-eithin SN5743 Y Das SO1932
teg adjfairMaes-teg SS8591 Llan-teg SN1810
telyn nfharpRhyd-y-delyn Fawr SH5275 Caedelyn SN5806
tew adjthick, fatCors Tewgyll SN1331 Llwyntew SN9428
th-A word starting th may be a mutated form of a word starting t
tir nmland, territoryTirabad SO8741 Brithdir SH7719
tlawd adj tlodion plpauper, poorTyddyn-tlodion SJ1753 Cae Tlodion SH5925
tom, tomen nfpile, muck-heap, mound, hillockDomgae SJ2719 Tomen y Meirw SJ1638
ton, tonnen nf/m, tonnau plgrassland (left unplowed), leaTon-teg ST0986 Tonypandy SS9992
top nmtopTop-rhiw-fawr SJ1117 Top-y-fron SJ2769
tor nmbreak, gapTor Glas SO0319 Torbant SM8430
torglwyd nfdoor-hurdle, gateMaestorglwyd SO2137 Dorglwyd SN6500
traeth nmbeach, strand, shoreMalltraeth SH4068 Trefdraeth SN0539
trallwng, trallwm nmwet low-lying landY Trallwng SJ2207 Trallwng SN9629
traws adj & nmcross, transverseTrawsgoed SN6773 Trawsfynydd SH7035
tref nfsettlement, hamlet, townTre-garth SH6067 Trefalun SJ3856
tri num tair fthreeTri Chrugiau SN9343 Llantrisant ST0483
trindod nftrinityLlandrindod SO0561 Ffynnon-y-drindod SS9373
troed nm/fbase, bottom, (foot)Allt Troed-y-rhiw SN5235 Troed-rhiw-cymmer SN7648
tros proverTrosnant SO0425 Tros-y-waen SH5666
trum nm trumiau plridgeTrum Gelli SH6501 Cefngeudrum SN7727
trwyn nmpoint, cape, (nose)Trwyn Bendro SM6923 Trwynhwrddyn SM7327
twlch nm tylchau pltump, knollCefn-twlch SJ1000 Dôl y Twlch SN8074
twll nm tyllau plhole, pitTwll-y-clawdd SH5073 Ty’n-Twll SJ1055
twmpath nmtump, hillockWaun Twmpath SN4602 Twmpath SO0743
tŵr nmtowerTre-tŵr SO1821 Twr SH2282
twrch nm tyrchod plboarTwrch Fechan SN7819 Blaen-Twrch SN6849
twyn nm twyni plhillock, knollTwynrodyn SO0505 Pen-twyn ST5209
nm tai plhouseTŷ-croes SH3472 Pentre Tŷ-gwyn SN8135
tyddyn, ty’n, tyn nmsmall farm, holdingTyn-y-groes SH7771 Ty’n-y-ffridd SJ1130
tyle nm/fhill, ascentMaestyle SN5939 Mynydd Tyle-coch SS9396
tylluan nfowlRhosdylluan SH8529 Cwmdylluan SN9588
tyno nmplain, meadowTynohir SN7098 Gwern Tyno SH8477
tywarchen nf, tyweirch, tywyrch plsod, turfLlyn-y-dywarchen SH5653 Penrhiwtywarch SN7144
tywyll adjdark, gloomyTywyllnodwydd SH7102 Cildywyll SN2212
tywyn nmsandy-shore, sand-duneTywyn SH7878 Llanfihangel-yn-nhywyn SH3176
uchaf adjupper, highestFelin-gwm-uchaf SN5023 Cwm Twrch Uchaf SN7511
uchel adjhighBonuchel SJ0857 Gelli-benuchel SN8005
uwch prabove, overLlanuwchllyn SH8730 Uwchmynydd SH1525
uwchlaw praboveUwchlaw’r-coed SH6025 Uwchlaw’r-rhos SH4754
wtra nflaneTynwtra SH8505 Tynyrwtra SJ0517
y, yr, ’r (definite article)theY Ferwig SN1849 Bryn-y-maen SH8376
ychen nm ŷch ploxPorthyrychen SH4693 Rhydyrychen SH8648
ymenyn (see menyn)
ymryson nmcontention, disputed groundRhos Ymryson SN4650 Esgair Ymryson SN8876
yn, ’n prinLlansanffraid-yn-Elfael SO0954 Ty’n-y-cefn SJ0443
ynys nf ynysoedd plisland; holm, river-meadowCoed-yr-ynys SO1520 Ynys-las SN6092
ysbyty nmhospital, hospiceYsbyty Ystwyth SN7371 Ysbyty Ifan SH8448
ysgafell nfledge, browYsgafell Wen SH6649 Tanysgafell SH6166
ysgallog nffull of thistles; place where thistles aboundPantysgallog SN9028 Dolysgallog SH8510
ysgawen, ysgaw nfelder-treeComin Cwmysgawen SO0371 Tre-Ysgawen SH4581
ysgeifiog nfplace of elder-treesYsgeifiog SJ1571 Llanfihangel Ysgeifiog SH4773
ysgol nf ysgolion plladder, formation on mountain-sideYsgolion Duon SH6663 Craig-yr-ysgol SN9502
ysgol nf ysgolion plschoolYsgoldy SH4382 Tai’r-ysgol SS6997
ysgubor nf, ysguboriau plbarnTyddyn-ysgubor SJ0040 Ysgubor Bach SH1628
ysguthan nfwood-pigeonBryn Ysguthan SH9311 Nant Ysguthan SH9411
ysgwydd nfshoulder (of mountain)Ysgwydd Hwch SO0537 Ysgwydd-gwyn-isaf SO1200
ystafell nfchamber, hiding-placeYstafelloedd SM7923 Cwm Nant Ystafell SN7108
ystlys nfside, flankYstlys-y-coed-uchaf SN5707, Ystlys-y-coed-isaf SN5606
ystrad nmvalley, holm, river-meadowYstrad Rhondda SS9895 Ystradgynlais SN7810
ystum nf/mbendLlanystumdwy SH4738 Ystumtuen SN7378
ywen nf yw plyew-treeCareg-ywen SO0052 Llwynywen SN5363

​Further information and references

Top image: The Vale of Ffestiniog from Plas Tan-y-bwlch © David Purchase, Creative Commons via Geograph Project

Ordnance Survey has benefited from the skill and expertise of various experts in reviewing the previous material and preparing these Guides. In the case of the Welsh section they are Professor Hywel Wyn Owen and Gruffudd Prys of the University of Wales in Bangor. For the Gaelic, Scots and Scandinavian sections they are Dr Anke‑Beate Stahl, Dr Simon Taylor, Peadar Morgan and the Gaelic Names Liaison Committee.

See the collection of guides to place names in Britain:

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